Consider the situation described in Problem 152. (a) In 2006, the researcher identifies 100 subjects

Consider the situation described in
Problem 152.

(a) In 2006, the researcher identifies 100
subjects with urinary bladder cancer and 100 subjects without urinary bladder
cancer. She then interviews these subjects to determine if they were heavy
coffee drinkers five years ago. What type of epidemiologic study is this?

(b) Give the expected 2x 2 table of bladder
cancer status and coffee consumption status for the 200 subjects described in
(a). For this expected table, calculate the odds ratio for the bladder cancer
group relative to the no-bladder-cancer group.

(c) The researcher classifies the subjects
according to their coffee consumption and urinary bladder cancer status.

Compute the estimated odds ratio for the bladder cancer group
relative to the no-bladder-cancer group. Give a 95% confidence interval for the
true odds ratio and interpret your results.

(d) For situations in which the disease of
interest (urinary bladder cancer, in this case) is very rare, which type of
epidemiologic study will be more likely to result in a significant result when
there is a true association between the risk factor and disease? Why is this
so?