Despite recent declines in transit ridership in the U.S., the construction of major transit networks continues across the country—as well as Canada, Mexico, and the rest of North America.
In 2019, there will be 89 major heavy rail, light rail, streetcar, bus rapid transit, and commuter rail projects under construction across the continent. These projects will add more than 830 miles of new fixed-guideway transit—generally high-quality service that will improve the lines of residents. In total, they’ll cost more than $91 billion to complete—most of which is funded by local governments.
In the U.S., the Trump Administration has repeatedly been reluctant to invest in new transit lines, even as the U.S. Department of Transportation has continually poured money into highways across the country. Nevertheless, following the Democratic takeover of the U.S. House after the November 2018 elections, the government has begun releasing funding commitments for major new projects. Those grants are likely to continue as long as Democrats continue to hold control of the House.
But, as in years past, high construction costs plague infrastructure projects in the U.S.—and those high costs make the completion of effective transit networks more difficult. Among heavy rail projects under construction in 2019, the average line in the U.S. will cost $650 million per mile—compared to just $362 million per mile in Canada (when adjusted to U.S. dollars). Among light rail projects, the average U.S. line will cost $339 million per mile to build, compared to just $146 million per mile in Canada.*
In this article, I first compare the networks that are being completed in cities in the U.S. and Canada, showing how different regions are promoting different priorities in their investments. I then document all of the projects planned for opening this year and that are under construction. These are all also mapped out, with additional data, on Transit Explorer, which I update throughout the year. Finally, I provide a table with data on all the projects under construction in North America.
Network effects and scales of construction
The investments in new rail and bus corridors documented here will certainly alter the manner in which people move around cities across North America. Yet the effectiveness of these investments in making it possible for people to conduct their lives using transit will depend on more than just whether new lines are constructed. It also depends on where those lines are located and how they relate to one another.
It is possible to induce high levels of commuting into downtown office jobs by creating a radial network of lines from throughout a region into the central business district. This type of transit system works best for 9-to-5 commuters and is frequently the model used by commuter rail agencies in the U.S. Yet a radial system is less likely to allow people to conduct other elements of their lives—getting to school, to shopping, or to entertainment—because it fails in serving other parts of the city. Moreover, other than in the downtown core, where it promotes hyper-concentration, it encourages dispersal elsewhere. The alternative is a grid of routes that creates a multi-nodal, multi-destination system of transportation. This allows people to not only get downtown, but to other parts of the city, and it makes denser development possible in other neighborhoods.
The other important question in orienting the design of a transit network is whether to prioritize dense, central communities, or whether to extend the system as far as possible into the hinterlands of the region. The first approach has the advantage of serving neighborhoods that are already walkable and that have the greatest chance of encouraging people to use transit for many trips. The second approach serves people who take the longest trips, though it does so in a way that will likely work most effectively only for those aforementioned 9-to-5 commuters.
Metropolitan regions in different parts of the U.S. and Canada are using varying methods in designing their networks, as illustrated in the following maps, taken from Transit Explorer, all of which are at the same scale. I’ve included a comparison with New York City for context.
Denver, Minneapolis, and Portland are developing primarily radial networks, focusing on expanding access into their downtowns. Their lines—not only those that already exist, but also those under construction and proposed—are widely spaced across the region.
On the other hand, Atlanta, Montréal, and Toronto are largely pursuing a grid of new lines that focus on their respective regions’ densest areas. This approach is likely to increase overall transit use more effectively, though it may not provide as useful an alternative to regional traffic. Los Angeles and Seattle are pursuing transit investment programs that tow the line somewhat between the two.
New York City
Projects planned for 2019 opening
In 2019, two heavy rail lines, seven light rail lines, ten bus rapid transit lines, and six commuter rail lines are expected to open. Of these, the most expensive to build was the 10-mile extension of San Francisco’s BART network to San Jose. This project, which has been under construction since 2013 and was supposed to open in 2018, is expected to serve about 46,000 daily riders; it will eventually be complemented by a further extension of BART to Santa Clara.
Yet the most expensive does not mean the most transformative. Ottawa’s Confederation Line, a new light rail project that replaces a preexisting busway and complements it with a downtown subway, will serve far more users—an expected 240,000 daily riders. In Guadalajara, the city’s third light rail line will serve even more: almost 350,000 trips a day.
Among others, San Francisco’s new Central Subway, which will extend its T-Third Muni Line through downtown, is also remarkable in that it’s been being actively discussed since the 1990s and is the first subway completed in central San Francisco since the BART Market Street tunnel in 1973.
|BART Silicon Valley||Ottawa Confederation Line||San Francisco Central Subway|
These projects will feature frequent, all-day service. The same, unfortunately, cannot be said for each of the new lines opening this year. Fort Worth’s TEX Rail project, which commences operations on January 10, is only scheduled for hourly service between downtown Fort Worth and the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport. That will limit the route’s usefulness for people who rely on transit and can’t wait an hour for the next train to show up. The system is planned for half-hourly service once additional trains arrive, yet the project is indicative of a problem among many major transit projects in the U.S.: we’re willing to spend billions of dollars on construction, but we have less interest in paying the long-term costs of making sure trains and buses on these lines are frequent and reliable.
Find a full listing of these projects below; to access their route maps on Transit Explorer, click the icon.
- Heavy Rail
- Light Rail
- Bay Area: Central Subway (1.7 miles, $1.6 billion)
- Denver: Southeast Extension (2.3 miles, $233 million)
- Edmonton: Valley Line Stage I (8.1 miles, C$1.8 billion)
- Guadalajara: Linea 3 (13.3 miles, $1 billion)
- Ottawa: Confederation Line (7.7 miles, C$2.1 billion)
- Phoenix: Gilbert Road Extension (1.9 miles, $184 million)
- Waterloo: ION Phase I (11.8 miles, $770 million)
- Bus Rapid Transit
- Bay Area: East Bay BRT (9.5 miles, $176 million)
- Calgary: Southwest BRT (13.7 miles, C$304 million)
- Chicago: Pace Pulse Milwaukee BRT (7.6 miles, $14 million)
- El Paso: Brio Alameda (12.2 miles, $36 million) ; Brio Dyer (10.2 miles, $36 million)
- Houston: Uptown BRT (4.5 miles, $193 million)
- Indianapolis: Red Line BRT (13.1 miles, $96 million)
- Minneapolis: C Line ($30 million)
- San Diego: South Bay Rapid (26 miles, $128 million)
- Seattle: Swift 2 Green Line (12.4 miles, $67 million)
- Commuter Rail
- Bay Area: SMART Larkspur Extension (2.1 miles, $43 million)
- Denver: Gold G Line (11.2 miles, $2.1 billion; supposed to open in 2018)
- Fort Worth: TEX Rail (27.2 miles, $1 billion)
- Mexico: Tren Interurbano Toluca (35.9 miles, $2 billion)
- Toronto: GO to Niagara (42.6 miles, $120 million) ; GO to Bloomington (C$82 million)
Other projects under construction in 2019—but opening in 2020 or later
Dozens of additional projects will be under construction in 2019 but aren’t planned for opening this year. Of these, by far the most expensive to build will be New York’s East Side Access project, which will extend Long Island Rail Road service to Grand Central Terminal by 2022 ($10.3 billion), and Honolulu’s rail transit investment, which will cross Oahu using automated, elevated trains in 2025 ($8.2 billion).
Yet other regions feature more new projects under construction. In Los Angeles, the new downtown subway for light rail trains—the Regional Connector—is expected to open in 2021, and in doing so improve service for two other light rail lines, the Crenshaw Line (2020) and the Gold Line Foothill Extension (2026). LA also has construction underway on all three phases of its Purple Line subway extension to the city’s west side (2026).
In the Seattle region, the massive expansion of the Link light rail system funded by voters in 2008 is underway, with three expansions from central Seattle east and north. In Montréal, the REM automated metro network is under construction, with scheduled completion in 2023. And in Toronto, four new light rail lines, a subway extension, and several bus rapid transit projects will be under construction this year.
Find a full listing of these projects below; to access their route maps on Transit Explorer, click the icon.
- Heavy Rail
- Chicago: Red and Purple Lines Modernization Phase 1 (1.9 miles, $2.1 billion, 2025—renovation)
- Honolulu: Rail Transit (20 miles, $8.2 billion, 2025)
- Los Angeles: LAX People Mover (2.3 miles, $2.7 billion, 2023) ; Purple Line Extension Phase 1 (3.9 miles, $2.8 billion, 2023), Phase 2 (2.6 miles, $2.5 billion, 2025), Phase 3 (2.5 miles, $2 billion, 2026)
- Mexico: Linea 12 Extension (2.5 miles, $153 million, 2021)
- Montréal: Réseau express métropolitain (41.6 miles, C$4.5 billion, 2023)
- Toronto: Scarborough Subway Extension (3.9 miles, C$3.4 billion, 2026)
- Washington: Silver Line Phase 2 (11.4 miles, $2.8 billion, 2020)
- Light Rail
- Boston: Green Line Extension (4.7 miles, $2.3 billion, 2021)
- Los Angeles: Crenshaw Line (8.5 miles, $2.1 billion, 2020) ; Gold Line Foothill (12.3 miles, $1.5 billion, 2026) ; Regional Connector (1.9 miles, $1.8 billion, 2021)
- Minneapolis: Southwest Corridor (14.5 miles, $1.9 billion, 2023)
- Monterrey: Linea 3 (4.7 miles, $439 million, 2020)
- Ottawa: Confederation Line East (7.5 miles, 2022) and West (9.3 miles, 2023) ; Trillium Line South (9.9 miles, 2021)
- San Diego: Mid-Coast Corridor (10.9 miles, $2.2 billion, 2021)
- Seattle: Northgate Link (4.3 miles, $2.1 billion, 2021) ; East Link (14 miles, $2.8 billion, 2023) ; Lynnwood Link (8.5 miles, $3.1 billion, 2024)
- Toronto: Eglinton Crosstown (11.8 miles, C$5 billion, 2021) ; Hurontario LRT (11.6 miles, C$1 billion, 2022) ; Finch West LRT (6.8 miles, C$1.2 billion, 2023) ; Hamilton LRT (6.7 miles, C$760 million, 2024)
- Washington: Maryland Purple Line (16.2 miles, $2.1 billion, 2022)
- Charlotte: CityLynx Gold Line Phase 2 (2.5 miles, $150 million, 2020)
- Orange County: Streetcar (4.1 miles, $408 million, 2021)
- Phoenix: Tempe Streetcar (3 miles, $202 million, 2021)
- Sacramento: Riverfront Streetcar (1.2 miles, $209 million, 2022)
- Seattle: Central City Connector (1.3 miles, $197 million, 2020) ; Tacoma Link Extension (2.4 miles, $166 million, 2022)
- Bus Rapid Transit
- Chicago: Pace Pulse Dempster (15 miles, $10 million, 2020)
- Grand Rapids: Laker Line (13.3 miles, $71 million, 2020)
- Indianapolis: IndyGo Purple Line (14.8 miles, $139 million, 2021)
- Kansas City: Prospect MAX BRT ($54 million, 2020)
- Milwaukee: East-West BRT (7 miles, $54 million, 2020)
- Minneapolis: Orange Line (17 miles, $151 million, 2021)
- Montréal: Sauvé/Côte Vertu (2.9 miles, 2020) ; SRB Pie-IX (6.8 miles, $264 million, 2022)
- Omaha: BRT (8 miles, $31 million, 2020)
- Portland: Division Corridor (15 miles, $175 million, 2022)
- Reno: Virginia Street BRT (1.8 miles, $80 million, 2020)
- St. Petersburg: Central BRT (11 miles, $41 million, 2021)
- San Francisco: Van Ness BRT (2 miles, $309 million, 2021) ; Geary BRT (6.6 miles, $35 million, 2021)
- Spokane: Central City Line (6 miles, $72 million, 2021)
- Toronto: Viva Rapidways (2020)
- Washington: Montgomery County US 29 BRT (13.5 miles, $31 million, 2020)
- Winnipeg: Southwest Rapid Transit Stage 2 (4.7 miles, C$508 million, 2020)
- Commuter Rail
- Dallas: Cotton Belt (26 miles, $1.1 billion, 2022)
- Denver: North N Line Phase 1 (13 miles, $343 million, 2020)
- Monterey: Rail Extension (2022)
- New Jersey: Lackawanna Cutoff (7.3 miles, 2020)
- New York: East Side Access (3 miles, $10.3 billion, 2022) ; LIRR Third Track (9.8 miles, $2.6 billion, 2022—renovation)
- Philadelphia: Wawa Extension (3 miles, $151 million, 2020)
- San Bernardino: Arrow/Redlands Rail (9 miles, $285 million, 2021)
- Toronto: GO to Bowmanville (12.4 miles, 2024)
Comparing projects across the continent
The following sortable table provides detailed information about each of the 89 major transit projects under construction in North America in 2019.
The projects that are expected to serve the most number of riders on a per-mile basis—a typical measure of project effectiveness—are Monterrey’s Linea 3, New York’s East Side Access project, and Los Angeles’ Regional Connector. Each will serve more than 45,000 riders per mile on a typical weekday.
Expensive projects that nonetheless are expected to serve very few riders per mile include Fort Worth’s TEX Rail, Denver’s Gold Line, and Los Angeles’ Crenshaw Line, all of which will serve fewer than 2,000 riders per mile.
Of the eight most expensive projects in terms of their per-mile construction cost, seven are subways, including New York’s East Side Access project, San Francisco’s Central Subway, Toronto’s Scarborough Subway Extension, and Los Angeles’ Purple Line extensions and Regional Connector. Boston’s mostly at-grade Green Line extension will be almost as expensive to build.
|Mode||Region||Project||Miles||Cost ($)||Cost/ Mile||Construct||Daily riders||Riders/ Mile||Grade||ROW|
|Heavy Rail||Bay Area CA||BART Silicon Valley Berryessa Extension||10||2400||240||2013-2019||46000||4600||At grade||Independent|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Bay Area CA||East Bay BRT||9.5||176||19||2015-2019||36000||3789||At grade||Independent (mostly)|
|Light Rail||Bay Area CA||Central Subway||1.7||1578||928||2013-2019||35100||20647||Subway||Independent|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Bay Area CA||Van Ness Avenue BRT||2||309||155||2016-2021||25000||12500||At grade||Independent|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Bay Area CA||Geary BRT||6.6||35||5||2018-2021||94000||14242||At grade||Semi-Independent|
|Commuter Rail DMU||Bay Area CA||SMART Train Phase 2||2.1||43||21||2017-2019||800||381||At grade||Independent|
|Light Rail||Boston MA||Green Line Extension||4.7||2300||489||2013-2021||45000||9574||At grade (mostly)||Independent|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Calgary AB||Southwest Transitway||13.7||304||22||2016-2019||46000||3358||At grade||Semi-Independent|
|Streetcar||Charlotte NC||CityLYNX Gold Line Phase 2||2.5||150||60||2017-2020||5700||2280||At grade||Shared|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Chicago IL||Pace Pulse Milwaukee Line||7.6||14||2||2017-2019||4100||539||At grade||Shared|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Chicago IL||Pace Pulse Dempster||15||10||1||2019-2020||At grade||Shared|
|Commuter Rail DMU||Dallas TX||TEX Rail||27.2||996||37||2016-2019||13700||504||At grade||Independent|
|Commuter Rail||Dallas TX||Cotton Belt||26||1100||42||2019-2022||At grade||Independent|
|Commuter Rail EMU||Denver CO||North Metro Phase 1 (N)||13||343||26||2014-2020||At grade (mostly)||Independent|
|Light Rail||Denver CO||Southeast Rail Extension||2.3||233||101||2016-2019||6600||2870||At grade||Independent|
|Commuter Rail EMU||Denver CO||Gold Line (G)||11.2||2100||188||2012-2019||18000||1607||At grade||Independent|
|Light Rail||Edmonton AB||Valley Line Stage 1 Southeast||8.1||1800||222||2016-2020||42000||5185||Subway/At grade||Independent|
|Bus Rapid Transit||El Paso TX||Brio Alameda Corridor||12.2||36||3||2016-2019||At grade||Shared|
|Bus Rapid Transit||El Paso TX||Brio Dyer Corridor||10.2||36||4||2017-2019||At grade||Shared|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Grand Rapids MI||Laker Line||13.3||71||5||2019-2020||4400||331||At grade||Shared|
|Light Rail||Guadalajara MX||Linea 3||13.3||994||75||2014-2019||348000||26165||Elevated/Subway||Independent|
|Heavy Rail Automated||Honolulu HI||Honolulu Rail Transit||20||8165||408||2011-2020||119600||5980||Elevated||Independent|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Houston TX||Uptown (Post Oak) BRT||4.5||193||43||2016-2019||19000||4222||At grade||Independent|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Indianapolis IN||IndyGo Red Line||13.1||96||7||2017-2019||11000||840||At grade||Independent|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Indianapolis IN||IndyGO Purple Line||14.8||139||9||2019-2021||9600||649||At grade||Independent (mostly)|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Kansas City MO||Prospect Avenue MAX||54||2018-2020||At grade||Shared|
|Light Rail||Los Angeles CA||Crenshaw Line||8.5||2058||242||2014-2020||16000||1882||Elevated/Subway/At grade||Independent|
|Heavy Rail||Los Angeles CA||Purple Line Extension Phase 1||3.9||2840||728||2014-2023||16800||4308||Subway||Independent|
|Light Rail||Los Angeles CA||Regional Connector||1.9||1756||924||2014-2021||90000||47368||Subway||Independent|
|Heavy Rail||Los Angeles CA||Purple Line Extension Phase 2||2.6||2477||953||2018-2025||36100||13885||Subway||Independent|
|Heavy Rail||Los Angeles CA||Purple Line Extension Phase 3||2.5||2000||800||2018-2026||Subway||Independent|
|Light Rail||Los Angeles CA||Foothill Gold Line Extension to Montclair||12.3||1500||122||2017-2027||At grade||Independent|
|Streetcar||Los Angeles CA||OC Streetcar Santa Ana/Garden Grove||4.1||408||100||2018-2021||7300||1780||At grade||Shared|
|Heavy Rail||Los Angeles CA||LAX Airport Connector||2.3||2700||1174||2019-2023||95000||41304||Elevated||Independent|
|Heavy Rail||Mexico MX||Linea 12 Extension||2.5||153||61||2016-2021||26000||10400||Subway||Independent|
|Commuter Rail||Mexico MX||Tren Interurbano de Pasajeros Toluca-Valle de Mexico||35.9||1978||55||2014-2018||230000||6407||Subway/At grade||Independent|
|Streetcar||Milwaukee WI||Lakefront Line||0.4||29||73||2017-2020||At grade||Shared|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Milwaukee WI||East-West BRT||7||54||8||2019-2020||9500||1357||At grade||Semi-Independent|
|Light Rail||Minneapolis MN||Southwest Corridor/Green Line Extension||14.5||1858||128||2017-2023||34000||2345||At grade (mostly)||Independent|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Minneapolis MN||C Line||30||2018-2019||9000||At grade||Shared|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Minneapolis MN||Orange Line||17||151||9||2017-2021||At grade||Shared|
|Commuter Rail||Monterey CA||Monterey County Rail Extension||38||137||4||2018-2022||At grade||Independent|
|Light Rail||Monterrey MX||Linea 3||4.7||439||93||2013-2020||280000||59574||Elevated/Subway||Independent|
|Automated Heavy Rail||Montreal QC||Reseau Express Metropolitain (REM)||41.6||4480||108||2018-2023||167000||4014||Elevated/Subway/At grade||Independent|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Montreal QC||SRB Pie-IX||6.8||264||39||2018-2022||70000||10294||At grade||Independent|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Montreal QC||Sauve/Cote-Vertu||2.9||2019-2020||40000||13793||At grade||Independent (mostly)|
|Commuter Rail||New York NJ||Lackawanna Cutoff Phase 1||7.3||2014-2020||At grade||Independent|
|Commuter Rail EMU||New York NY||East Side Access||3||10333||3444||2006-2022||162000||54000||Subway||Independent|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Omaha NE||Omaha BRT||8||31||4||2019-2020||At grade||Shared|
|Light Rail||Ottawa ON||Confederation Line||7.7||2100||273||2013-2019||240000||31169||Subway/At grade||Independent|
|Light Rail||Ottawa ON||Trillium Line South||9.9||2019-2021||At grade||Independent|
|Light Rail||Ottawa ON||Confederation Line West||9.3||2019-2023||At grade||Independent|
|Light Rail||Ottawa ON||Confederation Line East||7.5||2019-2022||At grade||Independent|
|Heavy Rail||Panama PA||Linea 2||13.1||2014-2019||Elevated||Independent|
|Commuter Rail||Philadelphia PA||Media/Elwyn Extension to Wawa||3||151||50||2017-2020||At grade||Independent|
|Light Rail||Phoenix AZ||Gilbert Road Extension||1.9||184||97||2015-2019||4000||2105||At grade||Independent|
|Streetcar||Phoenix AZ||Tempe Streetcar||3||202||67||2017-2021||At grade||Shared|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Portland OR||Division Transit||15||175||12||2019-2022||10000||667||At grade||Shared|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Reno NV||Virginia Street BRT||1.8||80||44||2018-2020||At grade||Shared|
|Streetcar||Sacramento CA||Downtown Riverfront Streetcar||1.2||209||174||2019-2022||At grade||Shared|
|Commuter Rail DMU||San Bernardino||Arrow Redlands Passenger Rail Project||9||285||32||2019-2021||1200||133||At grade||Independent|
|Bus Rapid Transit||San Diego CA||South Bay Rapid||26||128||5||2016-2019||At grade||Shared|
|Light Rail||San Diego CA||Mid-Coast Corridor Transit||10.9||2112||194||2015-2021||33800||3101||At grade||Independent|
|Light Rail||Seattle WA||Northgate Link||4.3||2100||488||2012-2021||60000||13953||Elevated/Subway||Independent|
|Light Rail||Seattle WA||East Link||14||2800||200||2016-2023||50000||3571||Elevated/Subway/At grade||Independent|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Seattle WA||Swift 2 Green Line||12.4||67||5||2017-2019||4700||379||At grade||Semi-Independent|
|Streetcar||Seattle WA||Center City Connector||1.3||197||152||2017-2020||20100||15462||At grade||Independent|
|Light Rail||Seattle WA||Lynnwood Link||8.5||3070||361||2018-2024||70000||8235||At grade||Independent|
|Streetcar||Seattle WA||Tacoma Link||2.4||166||69||2018-2022||At grade||Shared|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Spokane WA||Central City Line||6||72||12||2019-2021||3000||500||At grade||Shared|
|Bus Rapid Transit||St. Petersburg FL||Central Avenue BRT||11||41||4||2019-2021||5400||491||At grade||Semi-Independent|
|Light Rail||Toronto ON||Eglinton Crosstown||11.8||4990||423||2011-2021||170000||14407||Subway/At grade||Independent|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Toronto ON||Viva Next Rapidways Yonge (Phase 1)||5||2015-2020||At grade||Independent|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Toronto ON||Viva Next Rapidways Yonge (Phase 2)||1.3||2015-2020||At grade||Independent|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Toronto ON||Viva Rapidway Highway 7 West Phase 2||2016-2020||At grade||Independent|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Toronto ON||Viva Highway 7 Rapidway Phase 2||2016-2020||At grade||Independent|
|Light Rail||Toronto ON||Finch West LRT||6.8||1200||176||2018-2023||40000||5882||At grade||Independent|
|Commuter Rail||Toronto ON||Richmond Hill Line Extension to Bloomington||82||2017-2019||At grade||Independent|
|Commuter Rail||Toronto ON||GO Extension to Niagara Falls||42.6||120||3||2017-2019||At grade||Independent|
|Commuter Rail||Toronto ON||Lakeshore East Bowmanville Extension||12.4||2019-2024||At grade||Independent|
|Light Rail||Toronto ON||Hamilton LRT B-Line||6.7||760||113||2019-2024||31000||4627||At grade||Independent|
|Light Rail||Toronto ON||Hurontario LRT||11.6||1000||86||2018-2022||110000||9483||At grade||Independent|
|Heavy Rail||Toronto ON||Scarborough Subway Extension||3.9||3350||859||2019-2026||Subway||Independent|
|Heavy Rail||Washington DC||Silver Line Phase 2||11.4||2778||244||2014-2020||Elevated/At grade||Independent|
|Light Rail||Washington DC||Purple Line||16.2||2100||130||2017-2022||69000||4259||At grade (mostly)||Independent|
|Streetcar||Washington DC||Anacostia Initial Line||1.1||54||49||?-?||At grade||Semi-Independent|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Washington DC||US 29 Flash BRT||13.5||31||3||2018-2020||At grade||Shared|
|Light Rail||Waterloo ON||ION Light Rail Transit Phase 1||11.8||770||65||2014-2019||27000||2288||At grade||Independent|
|Bus Rapid Transit||Winnipeg MB||Southwest Rapid Transitway (Stage 2)||4.7||508||109||2016-2020||At grade||Independent|
Note: Canadian projects are listed in Canadian dollars, which as of January 8, 2019 are each worth 0.75 USD.
* Costs are not uniformly presented (some are year of expenditure, others are in year of planning).