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General Infrastructure

Transit Project Openings in 2024: A Global Review

Despite the ridership struggles facing transit systems in the United States, nations and cities around the world are investing dramatically in new lines. In this annual post, I review what projects were completed in 2023—and what’s coming over the next year.

Data for this compilation can be viewed freely on Transit Explorer or purchased for use in Shapefile, GeoJSON, and CSV formats. Transit Explorer has been dramatically expanded since last year, now covering metros—as well as many other types of lines—around the world. In addition, the interactive website for the first time allows users to “turn back the time” by seeing what transit in each city looked like in the past.

Previous compilations of new and planned transit projects on The Transport Politic can be found here: 2009 | 2010 | 2011  | 2012  | 2013  | 2014  | 2015  | 2016  | 2017 | 2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021 | 2022 | 2023

New transit investments completed in 2023

In 2023, 1,760 kilometers of urban transit—meaning fixed-guideway rail and bus projects within metropolitan areas—opened for service around the world. 1,100 new stations opened along those lines, although many other already existing stations got new service, too. The trends in 2023 represented a continuation of recent trends; in 2022, 1,819 kilometers opened, and in 2021 1,795 kilometers opened.

The majority of the new service came in the form of metro lines, including subway, elevated, and monorail services, which accounted for 64 percent of the total new route mileage. New light rail options added another 10 percent; commuter rail and regional rail another 16 percent; and bus rapid transit routes about 6 percent.

The new lines were concentrated in China, where 45 percent of new route kilometers opened, almost all of which were in the form of metros. That said, Russia (11 percent), the United States (5 percent), Thailand (4 percent), and India (3 percent) also added substantial new transit options. Overall, European Union countries added about 5 percent of new routes.

Major projects that opened included:

  • Bangkok Pink and Yellow Line monorail lines;
  • Beijing Subway Line 17;
  • Chengdu Metro Line 19;
  • Chongqing Metro Line 18;
  • Dalian Metro Line 5;
  • Delhi-Meerut RRTS regional rail (first phase);
  • Edmonton Valley Line Southeast light rail;
  • Fuzhou Metro Line 4;
  • Guiyang Metro Line 3;
  • Helsinki Line 15 light rail;
  • Honolulu Skyline automated metro (first phase);
  • Istanbul Line 11 metro;
  • Greater Jakara LRT (metro) extensions;
  • Kuala Lumpur light metro Line 12;
  • Lagos Blue Line metro first phase;
  • Montréal REM automated metro (first phase);
  • Moscow D3 and D4 regional rail projects;
  • Nanjing Metro Line S4;
  • New York East Side Access commuter rail subway;
  • Shenyang Metro Line 4;
  • Suzhou Metro Line 11;
  • Tel Aviv Red Line light rail;
  • Wenzhou Metro Line S2;
  • Zhengzhou Metro Zhengxu Line;
Rapid transit line openings in 2023

Below, I list the new transit projects that opened in 2023, with the United States listed first, followed by other countries in alphabetical order. Projects are listed by metropolitan area.

United States

  • Albany, New York: Washington-Western (Purple Line) BRT 13.6 km (Bus Rapid Transit) Link. Project links downtown Albany with the city’s west side, including the University at Albany and Crossgates Mall.
  • Chicago, Illinois: Pace Pulse Dempster 25.1 km (Arterial Rapid Transit) Link. This line runs from downtown Evanston west to O’Hare Airport.
  • Honolulu, Hawai’i: Skyline East Kapolei–Aloha Stadium 17.3 km (Heavy Rail) Link. This is the first phase of the city’s elevated automated metro. The line, which will connect to the airport and downtown, will be completed in phases in 2025 and 2031.
  • Los Angeles, California: Regional Connector 3 km (Light Rail) Link. This project created a new cross-downtown subway that allows the Metro A line to run north-south from Azusa to Long Beach and the E line to run east-west from East L.A. to Santa Monica.
  • Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Lakefront Line 1.2 km (Streetcar) Link. This is a short downtown loop that adds to existing service.
  • Milwaukee, Wisconsin: East-West BRT 15.2 km (Bus Rapid Transit) Link. This is the region’s first BRT line, running east-west from downtown to the Medical College of Wisconsin.
  • New York, New York: East Side Access 5.3 km (Commuter Rail) Link. This tunneled extension of the Long Island Railroad brings that service to a new station under Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan.
  • Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: RAPID NW 16 km (Arterial Rapid Transit) Link. This route connects downtown with the Baptist Medical Center in the northwest part of the city.
  • Portland, Oregon (Vancouver, Washington): The Vine Mill Plain 16.2 km (Arterial Rapid Transit) Link. This is an east-west improved bus route north of the Columbia River.
  • Salt Lake, Utah: Ogden/Weber State University BRT 9 km (Bus Rapid Transit) Link. This project connects downtown Ogden (north of Salt Lake City) to the university.
  • San Diego, California: Iris Rapid 20.3 km (Arterial Rapid Transit) Link. This is an east-west route near the city’s southern boundary.
  • Seattle, Washington: Line T Hilltop Extension 3.8 km (Streetcar) Link. This extended this short route to the hill above downtown Tacoma.
  • Seattle, Washington: Delridge/East Marginal RapidRide H 12.7 km (Bus Rapid Transit) Link. This line offered new service to Delridge and Burien on the region’s west side.
  • Spokane, Washington: City Line 9.2 km (Bus Rapid Transit) Link. This is an east-west route offering all-electric bus service through the city center.
  • Florida: Brightline Phase 2 West Palm Beach-Orlando 268.1 km (Intercity Rail) Link. This line connects Orlando International Airport with Miami.

Algeria

  • Mostaganem: Line 1 12 km (Tramway)
  • Mostaganem: Line 2 1.9 km (Tramway)

Bangladesh

  • Dhaka: MRT Line 6 Agargaon–Motijheel 8.5 km (Heavy Rail)

Bolivia

  • Cochabamba: Red Line Estación Cochabamba 0.7 km (Light Rail)
  • Cochabamba: Green Line Quillacollo–Suticollo 12.7 km (Light Rail)

Canada

  • Edmonton, Alberta: Valley Line Stage 1 Southeast 13.2 km (Light Rail) Link
  • London, Ontario: Downtown Loop BRT 2.2 km (Bus Rapid Transit) Link
  • Ottawa, Ontario: Rapibus Lorrain Extension 2.8 km (Bus Rapid Transit) Link
  • Montréal, Québec: REM South Shore 16.7 km (Light Metro) Link

Chile

  • Santiago: Linea 2 La Cisterna-El Pino 5.1 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Santiago: Linea 3 Los Libertadores-Plaza de Quilicura 3.3 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Temuco: Tren Temuco-Pitrufquen 29.4 km (Commuter Rail)

China

  • Beijing: Line 11 Jin’anqiao–Moshikou 1.2 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Beijing: Line 16 Yushuzhuang–Wanpingcheng 3.6 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Beijing: Line 17 Workers’ Stadium–Future Science Park North 25.2 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Beijing: Changping Line Qinghe Railway Station–Xitucheng 9.6 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Changchun: Line 4 Tiangong Road–Hejiatun 4.5 km (Light Rail)
  • Changsha: Xihuan Line Xiangtan North Railway Station–Shantang 18 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Changsha: Dawangshan Yunba 8.4 km (Light Metro)
  • Chengdu: Line 19 Jiujiang North–Hejiang 42.1 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Chongqing: Line 5 EXPO Garden Center–Yuegangbeilu 8.9 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Chongqing: Line 5 Dashiba–Shiqiaopu 5.2 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Chongqing: Line 9 Xingke Avenue–Huashigou 8.6 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Chongqing: Line 10 Liyuchi–Houbao 4.9 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Chongqing: Line 10 Houbao–Lanhualu 4.4 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Chongqing: Line 18 Fuhualu–Tiaodengnan 28.6 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Dalian: Line 5 Hutan Xinqu–Houguan 24.3 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Fuzhou: Line 4 Difengjiang–Fenghuangchi 23.3 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Fuzhou: Line 5 Ancient Luozhou Town–Fuzhou South Railway Station 5.2 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Guiyang: Line 3 Tongmu Ridge–Luo Bay 42.3 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Harbin: Line 3 Taipingqiao–Sports Park 3.3 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Hefei: Line 1 Hefei Railway Station–Zhangwa 5 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Hefei: Line 2 Sanshibu–Cuozhen 14.2 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Hefei: Line 3 Xingfuba–Guyanyi 11.3 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Jinhua: Yidong Line Sports Center–Ming and Qing Dynasty Palaces 16.8 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Lanzhou: Line 2 Yanbai Bridge–Dongfanghong Square 8.4 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Nanjing: Line S4 Chuzhou–Chahe 45 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Nanjing: Line 7 Yingtiandaji–Xishanqiao 12.3 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Nantong: Line 2 Happiness–Pioneer 20.7 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Pearl River Delta: Guangzhou Metro Line 5 Wenchong–Huangpu New Port 9.6 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Pearl River Delta: Guangzhou Metro Line 7 Higher Education Mega Center South–Yanshan 21.7 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Qingdao: Line 13 Jialingjiang Road–Jinggangshan Road 3 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Shaoxing: Line 2 Chengxi Road–Yuexing Road 10.3 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Shenyang: Line 2 Quanyunlu–Taoxianjichang 14.2 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Shenyang: Line 4 Zhengxin Road–Innovation Road 34.3 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Suzhou: Line 11 Weiting–Huaqiao 40.7 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Tianjin: Line 11 Dongjiangdao–Donglilujinglu 12.3 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Wenzhou: Line S2 Qingdong Road–Dongshan 64.6 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Wuhan: Line 5 Hubei University of Chinese Medicine–Hongxiacun 2.7 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Wuhan: Line 19 Wuhan Railway Station West Square–Xinyuexi Park 25.6 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Wuhan: Optics Valley Air Rail 10.4 km (Monorail)
  • Xian: Line 1 Fenghesenlingongyuan–Xianyangxizhan 10.9 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Xian: Line 2 Xi’an Beizhan–Caotan 3.5 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Xian: Line 2 Weiqunan–Changninggong 3.3 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Xian: Line 16 Qinchuangyuanzhongxin–Shijingli 15.3 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Zhengzhou: Line 3 Yinggang–Binhe Xincheng Nan 5.5 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Zhengzhou: Line 14 Olympic Sports Center–Lianhu 1.7 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Zhengzhou: Line 10 Zhengzhou Railway Station–Zhengzhou West Railway Station 21.6 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Zhengzhou: Zhengxu Line Xuchang East Railway Station–Chang’an Road North 68.3 km (Heavy Rail)

Costa Rica

  • San Jose: Interurbano Cartago–Oreamuno 2 km (Interurban)

Egypt

  • Cairo: Line 3 Extension to Cairo University 6.1 km (Heavy Rail)

Finland

  • Helsinki: Line 15 24.5 km (Light Rail)

France

  • Angers: Tramway B/C 8.4 km (Tramway) Link
  • Bordeaux: Tramway A Extension 4.7 km (Tramway) Link
  • Lyon: Metro B Extension 2.5 km (Heavy Rail) Link
  • Paris: Tramway 10 Jardin Parisien–La Croix de Berny 6.7 km (Tramway) Link
  • Paris: Tramway 12 Express 20.5 km (Tramway) Link
  • Strasbourg: BHNS G Gare Centrale–Rotterdam 5.3 km (Bus Rapid Transit)

Germany

  • Hanover: 17 Wallensteinstrasse–Hemmingen 3.1 km (Light Rail)

Indonesia

  • Jakarta: Greater Jakarta LRT Dukuh Atas–Cawang 10.1 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Jakarta: Greater Jakarta LRT Cawang–Bekasi Timur 17.8 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Jakarta: Cibubur Line Cawang–Baranangsiang 14.9 km (Heavy Rail)

India

  • Bengaluru: Purple Line Baiyappanahalli–Whitefield 15.5 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Bengaluru: Purple Line Kengeri–Challaghatta 1.7 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Delhi: Airport Express Dwarka Sector 21–ECC Centre 1.9 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Delhi: Delhi–Meerut RRTS Sahibabad–Duhai 14 km (Regional Rail)
  • Mumbai: Line 2 Dahanukarwadi–Andheri West 9 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Mumbai: Line 7 Aarey–Gundavali 6.4 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Mumbai: Navi Mumbai Line 1 CBD Belapur–Central Park 6.5 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Mumbai: Navi Mumbai Line 1 Central Park–Pendhar 4.4 km (Heavy Rail)

Iran

  • Tehran: Line 7 Sanat–Meydan Kitab 4.4 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Tehran: Line 6 Imam Hossein–Trabiat Modares University 8.7 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Shiraz: Line 2 Imam Hossein–Shokoufeh 8.6 km (Heavy Rail)

Israel

  • Tel Aviv: Red Line 24.4 km (Light Rail)

Italy

  • Milano: M4 (Dateo-San Babila) 1.8 km (Light Metro) Link

Japan

  • Fukuoka: Nanakuma Line Tenjin-Minami–Hakata 1.5 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Utsunomiya: Utsunomiya Light Rail Utsunomiya Station East–Haga Takanezawa Industrial Park 14.5 km (Light Rail)

Malaysia

  • Kuala Lumpur: 12 Putrajaya Line Kampung Batu–Putrajaya Sentral 40.6 km (Heavy Rail)

Mexico

  • Mexico: Mexicable Linea 2 8.2 km (Aerial Tram)
  • Mexico: Tren Interurbano Lerma–Zinacantepec 20.4 km (Commuter Rail) Link
  • Yucatan: Tren Maya Cancun–Campeche 470.2 km (Intercity Rail)

Morocco

  • Casablanca: Casabusway 1 12.6 km (Bus Rapid Transit) Link
  • Casablanca: Casabusway 2 11.9 km (Bus Rapid Transit) Link

Netherlands

  • Rotterdam: B Extension to Hoek van Holland 2 km (Heavy Rail)

Nigeria

  • Lagos: Blue Line Marina–Mile 2 12.6 km (Heavy Rail)

Panama

  • Panama: Linea 2 Airport Extension 2 km (Heavy Rail) Link

Portugal

  • Lisboa: Funicular da Graca 0.1 km (Cable Rail)

Qatar

  • Doha: Green Line 4.2 km (Tramway)

Russia

  • Moscow: 8A Rasskazovka–Vnukovo 4.8 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Moscow: 10 Seligerskaya–Fiztekh 6.1 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Moscow: 11 Elektrozavodskaya–Savyolovskaya 7.4 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Moscow: 11 Kashirskaya–Nizhegorodskaya 11.3 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Moscow: D3 Zelenograd-Kryukovo–Ippodrom 84.4 km (Regional Rail)
  • Moscow: D4 Aprelevka–Zheleznodorozhnaya 80.5 km (Regional Rail)

Senegal

  • Dakar: Train express régional Dakar-AIBD 19.9 km (Commuter Rail)

South Korea

  • Seoul: Line 1 Soyosan–Yeoncheon 18.1 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Seoul: Seohae Line Sosa–Neunggok 16.8 km (Regional Rail)

Spain

  • Malaga: Metro Malaga Extension L1/L2 1.2 km (Tramway)
  • Vitoria: Tranvía extension to Salburua 2.5 km (Tramway)

Thailand

  • Bangkok: Pink Line Nonthaburi Civic Center–Min Buri 34.4 km (Monorail) Link
  • Bangkok: Yellow Line Lat Samrong–Hua Mak 16.5 km (Monorail)
  • Bangkok: Yellow Line Lat Phrao–Hua Mak 12.3 km (Monorail)
  • Bangkok: Suvarnabhumi Airport Automated People Mover 1.1 km (Light Metro)

Turkey

  • Ankara: M4 Ataturk Kultur Merkezi–15 Temmuz Kizilay Milli Irade 3.6 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Istanbul: M3 Basaksehir/MetroKent–Kayasehir Merkez 5.8 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Istanbul: M8 Bostanci–Parseller 14.3 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Istanbul: M11 Kargo Terminali–Gayrettepe 36.7 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Istanbul: T5 Cibali–Eminonu 1.1 km (Tramway)

Taiwan

  • Taipei: Ankeng Light Rail Shisizhang–Shuangcheng 7.6 km (Light Rail)
  • Taipei: Taoyuan Airport MRT Huanbei–Laojie River 0.9 km (Heavy Rail)

United Kingdom

  • Birmingham: West Midlands Metro Wolverhampton City Centre Loop 0.6 km (Light Rail) Link
  • Edinburgh: Edinburgh Trams Newhaven Extension 4.5 km (Tramway) Link
  • London: Luton DART 2 km (Cable Rail) Link

Planned 2024 openings

Cities around the world expect to complete far more projects in 2024 than in 2023—with 3,014 kilometers of new urban transit planned for completion. That said, large projects of this sort have a history of being delayed. So we’ll see.

Among those countries with projects planned to open in 2024, China represents 50 percent of planned route kilometers, the U.S. 10 percent, India 7 percent, Saudia Arabia 6 percent, and Turkey 4 percent. Together, the E.U. will add 4 percent of new route kilometers.

Major projects planned for opening in 2024 include:

  • Agra Lines 1 and 2;
  • Beijing Line 12;
  • Bengaluru Yellow Line;
  • Cairo Monorail (two lines);
  • Casablanca T3 and T4 tramway;
  • Changchun Line 6;
  • Chengdu Lines 13, 17, 27, and S3;
  • Fuzhou Binhai Express;
  • Hefei Line 6;
  • Ho Chi Minh City metro opening
  • Istanbul Metro 11;
  • Kolkata Line 6;
  • Milano M4 completion;
  • Montréal REM (two branches and central segment);
  • Mumbai Line 2 extension;
  • Nanjing Line 5 and 6 extensions;
  • Paris Metro 11 and 14 extensions, plus RER E regional rail subway to La Défense;
  • Patna Lines 1 and 2;
  • Pearl River Delta Guangzhou Metro Lines 11 and 12;
  • Riyadh metro opening;
  • Seattle East Link (first phase) and Lynnwood Link light rail;
  • Seoul GTX A regional rail;
  • Shanghai Airport Link Line regional rail;
  • Suzhou Lines 6, 8, and 8;
  • Sydney Metro City and Southwest line;
  • Taiyuan Line 1;
  • Tianjin Line 7, Z4, and B1;
  • Toronto Eglinton Crosstown;
  • Wuhan Lines 12 and S1;
  • Xiamen Line 6;
  • Xi’an Line 8;
  • Zhengzhou Lines 7 and 8;
Planned 2024 rapid transit line openings

Below, I list the transit projects that are planned for opening in 2024, with the United States listed first, followed by other countries in alphabetical order. Projects are listed by metropolitan area.

United States

  • Baton Rouge, Louisiana: 15.5 km (Arterial Rapid Transit) Link. This north-south route will criss-cross the city center.
  • Boston, Massachusetts: South Coast Rail Phase 1 60.4 km (Commuter Rail) Link. This line will add new commuter rail service from Boston to Fall River and New Bedford.
  • Chicago, Illinois: Northwest Indiana Double Track Project (existing corridor) 41.5 km (Commuter Rail) Link. This project will add a second track to improve service between Chicago and South Bend.
  • Indianapolis, Indiana: Purple Line 15.8 km (Bus Rapid Transit) Link. This is the city’s second BRT route, connecting downtown with Fort Harrison.
  • Los Angeles, California: Crenshaw Line Phase 2 Westchester/Veterans–Aviation 3.9 km (Light Rail) Link. This will extend the recently opened K Line to the LAX airport.
  • Miami, Florida: South Dade TransitWay Corridor 31.2 km (Bus Rapid Transit) Link. This is an improvement on the existing corridor.
  • Miami, Florida: Downtown Miami Link 14.3 km (Commuter Rail) Link. This repeatedly delayed project will bring Tri-Rail service to downtown for the first time, courtesy of Brightline’s tracks.
  • Monterey, California: Monterey County Rail Extension 60.4 km (Commuter Rail) Link. This will extend Caltrain service from Gilroy to Salinas.
  • Orlando, Florida: SunRail Phase 2 (North) 19 km (Regional Rail) Link. This will extend the existing line from DeBary to DeLand.
  • Phoenix, Arizona: Northwest Phase 2 2.5 km (Light Rail) Link. This will extend the existing line to the Metrocenter Mall.
  • Phoenix, Arizona: South Central Corridor 9.4 km (Light Rail) Link. This route will connect downtown with Baseline route.
  • Seattle, Washington: Lynnwood Link 13.7 km (Light Rail) Link. This will extend the city’s light rail north of the city.
  • Seattle, Washington: Madison St RapidRide G 4.6 km (Bus Rapid Transit) Link. This line will run northeast from the city center.
  • Seattle, Washington: Swift Orange Line 16.6 km (Arterial Rapid Transit) Link. This suburban route will connect Mill Creek and Edmonds.
  • Seattle, Washington: East Link Blue Line South Bellevue–Redmond Technology 10.1 km (Light Rail) Link. This is the first phase in a line that will eventually connect downtown Seattle with Bellevue.

Australia

  • Sydney: Metro City and Southwest Chatswood–Bankstown 30.2 km (Heavy Rail) Link
  • Sydney: Parramatta Light Rail Phase 1 Westmead–Carlingford 10.9 km (Light Rail) Link

Belarus

  • Minsk: Zelenaluzhskaya Line Slutsk Gastinets 4.2 km (Heavy Rail)

Brazil

  • Rio de Janeiro: TransBrasil 31.7 km (Bus Rapid Transit)
  • São Paulo: GRU Airport People Mover 2.5 km (Light Metro)

Canada

  • Montréal, Québec: REM Central Segment 10.1 km (Light Metro) Link
  • Montréal, Québec: REM Deux Montagnes Branch 19.6 km (Light Metro) Link
  • Montréal, Québec: REM Western Branch 15.5 km (Light Metro) Link
  • Ottawa, Ontario: O-Train Trillium Line South 14.3 km (Light Rail) Link
  • Toronto, Ontario: Line 5 Eglinton Crosstown 18.9 km (Light Rail) Link
  • Toronto, Ontario: Line 6 Finch West LRT 10.5 km (Light Rail) Link
  • Toronto, Ontario: Hurontario LRT 17.9 km (Light Rail) Link

China

  • Beijing: Line 1 Pingguoyuan–Fushouling 3.1 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Beijing: Line 3 Dongsi Shitiao–Dongbabei 15 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Beijing: Line 12 Sijiqing–Dongbabei 29.4 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Beijing: Line 13A Dazhongsi–Chegongzhuang 3.9 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Beijing: Line 17 Workers’ Stadium–Shilihe 7.8 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Beijing: Changping Line Xitucheng–Jimenqiao 0.9 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Changchun: Line 6 Shuangfeng–Changchun Movie Wonderland 28.1 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Changsha: Line 6 Huanghua Airport T1–Huanghua Airport T3 4.2 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Changsha: Line 1 Kaifu District Government–Jinpenqiu 10.7 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Chengdu: Line 8 Lianhua–Longgang 1.1 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Chengdu: Line 8 Shilidian–Guilong Road 6.4 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Chengdu: Line 10 Taipingyuan–Luomashi 7 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Chengdu: Line 13 Longan–Wayaotan 30.4 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Chengdu: Line 17 Jitouqiao–Gao Hong 24.6 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Chengdu: Line 18 South Railway Station–North Railway Station 10.7 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Chengdu: Line 27 Stone Buddha–Shuxin Road 25.7 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Chengdu: S3 Ziyang North Railway Station–Futian 38.5 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Fuzhou: Line 4 Fenghuangchi–Banzhou 5.1 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Fuzhou: Binhai Express 62.2 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Harbin: Line 3 Taipingqiao–Sports Park 9.9 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Hefei: Line 6 Longtang–Xiaoshu Mountain 29.3 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Hefei: Line 7 Songlin Lu–Chaohu Nanlu 20.2 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Hefei: Line 8 Hefei Beicheng Railway Station–Yilijing 23 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Hefei: Line 4 Longtang–Xiaoshu Mountain 13.1 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Hong Kong: Extension to T2 3 km (Light Metro)
  • Jinan: Line 3 Tantou–Yaoqiang Airport 12.5 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Kunming: Line 2 South Ring Road–Haidong Park 13 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Liuzhou: Line 2 Xianglanxincun–Bailian Airport 19.6 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Macau: Taipa Line Taipa–Barra 3 km (Light Metro)
  • Macau: Seac Pai Van Line 1.1 km (Light Metro)
  • Nanjing: Line 10 Andemen–Shiyangdonglu 12.9 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Nanjing: Line 3 Mozhoudonglu–Molingjiedao 3 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Nanjing: Line 5 Fangjiaying–Jiyindadao 37.5 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Nanjing: Line 6 Qixiashan–Nanjing South Railway Station 32.8 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Nanjing: Line 7 Mufuxilu–Yingtiandaji 10.7 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Ningbo: Line 5 Buzheng–Camel Bridge 10.7 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Pearl River Delta: Guangzhou Metro Line 3 Panyu Square–Haibang 8.8 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Pearl River Delta: Guangzhou Metro Line 10 Xilang–Shipaiqiao 18.7 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Pearl River Delta: Guangzhou Metro Line 11 Huajing Lu–Pazhou 42.3 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Pearl River Delta: Guangzhou Metro Line 12 Xunfenggang–Higher Education Mega Center South 38.2 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Pearl River Delta: Shenzhen Metro Line 7 Xili Lake–Xuefu Hospital 2.2 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Pearl River Delta: Shenzhen Metro Line 8 Yantian Road–Xiaomeisha 8.2 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Pearl River Delta: Guangqing Intercity Railway Qingcheng–Provincial Vocational Education City 19.6 km (Regional Rail)
  • Shanghai: Line 2 East Xujing–Panxiang Road 1.5 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Shanghai: Line 17 Oriental Land–Xicen 8.1 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Shanghai: Airport Link Line Hongqiao–Shanghai East Railway Station 70.3 km (Regional Rail)
  • Shaoxing: Line 1 Branch Huangjiu Town–Exhibition and Convention Center 7.2 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Shenyang: Line 3 BMW New Factory–Xintai Street 41.9 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Shijiazhuang: Line 1 Fuze–Dongyang 4.1 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Suzhou: Line 6 Suzhou Xinqu Railway Station–Xinqing Lu 35.3 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Suzhou: Line 7 Moyang–Hongzhuang 31.8 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Suzhou: Line 8 Xijinqiao–Chefeng 35.8 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Taiyuan: Line 1 Xishan Mining Bureau–Wusu Airport 27.4 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Tianjin: Line 4 Hebeidajie–Xiaojie 21.2 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Tianjin: Line 8 Lushuidao–Lushuigongyuan 19 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Tianjin: Line 7 Saidalu–Xifengdao 25.5 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Tianjin: Line 11 Dongjiangdao–Wenjielu 14.2 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Tianjin: Z4 Yincheng Street–Metro Six 43 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Tianjin: B1 Xinjia Garden East–Metro Four 33 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Urumqi: Line 2 Nanmen–Huashan Street 13.3 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Wuhan: Line 11 Wuhandong Railway Station–Jiang’an Road 17.9 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Wuhan: Line 12 Science Park–Qingling 21.7 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Wuxi: Line S1 Yanqiao–Jiangyin Waitan 31.1 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Xiamen: Line 6 Longjiangmingzhu–Dong’an 31 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Xian: Line 8 loop 49.9 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Xiongan: R1 Daxing Airport-Xiongan Terminal 86.7 km (Regional Rail)
  • Zhengzhou: Line 6 Changzhuang–Tsinghua High School 32.1 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Zhengzhou: Line 7 Eastern Zhao–Houzhai 29.7 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Zhengzhou: Line 8 Green Expo Garden–Tianjian Lake 58.5 km (Heavy Rail)

Denmark

  • Copenhagen: M4 Kobenhavn H-Ny Ellebjerg 5.2 km (Light Metro) Link

Egypt

  • Cairo: Cairo Monorail – New Administrative Capital Line 58 km (Monorail)
  • Cairo: Cairo Monorail – 6th of October City Line 43.1 km (Monorail)
  • Cairo: Line 3 Extension to Rod el-Farag 6.8 km (Heavy Rail)

France

  • Bordeaux: Bordeaux-St-Aubin-Medoc BHNS 22.3 km (Bus Rapid Transit) Link
  • Paris: M11 Est Phase 6.0 km (Heavy Rail) Link
  • Paris: M14 Sud 12.7 km (Heavy Rail) Link
  • Paris: M14 Nord Phase 2 2.1 km (Heavy Rail) Link
  • Paris: T Zen 4 14.7 km (Bus Rapid Transit) Link
  • Paris: RER E Haussmann–Nanterre La Folie 8.6 km (Regional Rail) Link
  • Paris: Tram 3b Porte Dauphine Extension 3.2 km (Tramway) Link

Greece

  • Thessaloniki: Line 1/2 9.6 km (Light Metro) Link

Indonesia

  • Jakarta: Southern Line Velodrome–Pramuka 2.5 km (Heavy Rail)

India

  • Agra: Line 1 Sikandra–Taj East Gate 13.9 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Agra: Line 2 Kalindi Vihar–Agra Cantt 16.3 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Ahmedabad: Line GIFT City Branch 14.5 km (Heavy Rail) Link
  • Bengaluru: Green Line Nagasandra–Madavara 3.9 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Bengaluru: Yellow Line Rashtreeya Vidyalaya Road–Bommasandra 19.2 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Bhopal: Red Line Bhadbhada Square–Ratnagiri Tiraha 13.1 km (Heavy Rail) Link
  • Bhopal: Blue Line Karond Circle–AIIMS 14.7 km (Heavy Rail) Link
  • Chennai: MRTS Velachery–St. Thomas Mount 4.5 km (Heavy Rail) Link
  • Kolkata: Line 4 Noapara–Biman Bandar 7.2 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Kolkata: Line 6 Biman Bandar–Kavi Subhash 29.4 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Mumbai: Line 2 ESIC Nagar–Mandala 23.9 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Mumbai: Line 3 Aarey Colony–Bandra Kurla Complex 11.7 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Patna: Line 1 Khemni Chak–Danapur Cantonment 16.7 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Patna: Line 2 New ISBT–Patna Junction 13.8 km (Heavy Rail)

Italy

  • Cagliari: L1 – FS 2.4 km (Tramway)
  • Catania: Metropolitana Nesima-Monte Po 1.1 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Genova: Metropolitana Brin-Canepari 0.9 km (Light Metro) Link
  • Milano: M4 (San Babila-San Cristoforo) 7.4 km (Light Metro) Link
  • Napoli: Linea 6 Mergellina–Municipio 3.4 km (Light Metro) Link
  • Napoli: Linea 1 Tribunale–Piazza Garibaldi 2.3 km (Heavy Rail) Link

Japan

  • Osaka: Kita-Osaka Kyuko Railway Senri-Chuo–Mino-Kayano 2.5 km (Heavy Rail)

Luxembourg

  • Luxembourg: Tramway T1 Phase D (Stadion) 3.6 km (Tramway) Link

Mexico

  • Guadalajara: Linea 4 20.5 km (Light Rail) Link
  • Mexico City: Linea 12 Extension 3.9 km (Heavy Rail) Link
  • Mexico City: Tren Interurbano Lerma–Observatorio 39 km (Commuter Rail) Link
  • Mexico City: Lechería-AIFA Suburban Line Extension 22.1 km (Commuter Rail) Link
  • Mexico City: Cablebus Linea 3 4.9 km (Aerial Tram) Link
  • Yucatan: Tren Maya Cancun–Escarcega 619.8 km (Intercity Rail)

Morocco

  • Agadir: Agadir BRT 15.5 km (Bus Rapid Transit) Link
  • Casablanca: T3 13.7 km (Tramway) Link
  • Casablanca: T4 12.4 km (Tramway) Link

Nigeria

  • Lagos: Red Line 32.4 km (Heavy Rail)

Philippines

  • Manila: LRT Line 1 Baclaran–Dr. Santos 6.6 km (Light Metro)

Portugal

  • Lisboa: Linha Verde Extension Rato–Cais do Sodre 2.5 km (Heavy Rail) Link
  • Porto: Linha D (Amarela) Extension – Vila d’Este 3 km (Tramway) Link

Russia

  • Moscow: 1 Kommunarka–Potapovo 2.2 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Saint Petersburg: M4 Spasskaya–Gorny Institut 4.3 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Saint Petersburg: M6 Putilovskaya–Yugo-Zapadnaya 3.4 km (Heavy Rail)

Saudi Arabia

  • Riyadh: Line 1 – Blue 39.2 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Riyadh: Line 2 – Red 25.5 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Riyadh: Line 3 – Orange 41.5 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Riyadh: Line 4 – Yellow 20.2 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Riyadh: Lines 4/6 – Yellow/Purple 9 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Riyadh: Line 5 – Green 12.4 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Riyadh: Line 6 – Purple 20.7 km (Heavy Rail)

Singapore

  • Singapore: North East Line Punggol–Punggol Coast 1.3 km (Heavy Rail) Link
  • Singapore: Thomson-East Coast Line Gardens by the Bay–Bayshore 10.6 km (Heavy Rail) Link

South Africa

  • Johannesburg: Rea Vaya Phase 1C 15.9 km (Bus Rapid Transit) Link

South Korea

  • Daegu: Line 1 Ansim–Hayang 9.2 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Seoul: Line 8 Amsa–Byeollae 12.9 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Seoul: Incheon Subway Line 1 Gyeyang–Geomdan 4.8 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Seoul: GTX A Suseo–Dongtan 33.4 km (Regional Rail)
  • Seoul: Sinansan Line Yeouido–Hanyang University 30.7 km (Regional Rail)

Spain

  • Barcelona: Conexión Trambaix-Trambesòs 1.8 km (Tramway) Link
  • Madrid: L3 to El Casar 3.8 km (Heavy Rail) Link
  • Palma: M1 UIB–Parc Bit 1.4 km (Light Metro)

Taiwan

  • Kaohsiung: Circular Light Rail Heart of Love River–Kaisyuan Park 4.9 km (Tramway)

Turkey

  • Bursa: BursaRay Emek–Sehir Hastanesi 4.6 km (Light Rail) Link
  • Gebze: M1 15.9 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Istanbul: M1B Kirazli–Halkali 9.1 km (Heavy Rail) Link
  • Istanbul: M3 Kirazli–Barkirkoy IDO 8.5 km (Heavy Rail) Link
  • Istanbul: M5 Cekmekoy–Sancaktepe Sehir Hastanesi 3.2 km (Heavy Rail) Link
  • Istanbul: M7 Yildiz–Kabatas 3.5 km (Heavy Rail) Link
  • Istanbul: M9 Bahariye–Atakoy 11.4 km (Heavy Rail) Link
  • Istanbul: M11 Kargo Terminali–Halkali 32.7 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Istanbul: M14 Altunizade–Bosna Bulvari 4.6 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Istanbul: T6 8.4 km (Tramway) Link
  • Izmir: M1 Fahrettin Altay–Kaymakamlik hatti 7.1 km (Heavy Rail)
  • Izmir: T1 Atasehir–Mavisehir IZBAN 1.6 km (Tramway)
  • Izmir: T3 10.1 km (Tramway)

Ukraine

  • Dnipro: Dnipro Metro Vokzalna–Dnipro 4.3 km (Heavy Rail)

United Kingdom

  • Birmingham: West Midlands Metro Wednesbury to Brierley Hill Extension 10.9 km (Light Rail) Link
  • Blackpool: Blackpool Tramway Extension 0.5 km (Tramway) Link

Vietnam

  • Ho Chi Minh: Line 1 Ben Thanh–New Eastern Bus Station 19.2 km (Heavy Rail)
Categories
General Light Rail Metro Rail

Once a Leader in Urban Rail Investment, the United States Now Trails

As late as 1980, the United States had more kilometers of metro lines per capita than all large developed countries but the United Kingdom—thanks in part to large public investments in projects like Washington’s Metro and San Francisco’s BART. In the decades since, both the United States and the United Kingdom have stagnated, falling behind even as other countries, particularly China, but also India and many in Europe and South America, have invested in massive new construction campaigns. Much of the world’s urban areas are rapidly becoming dominated by metro service.

In this post, I exploit data from the newly expanded Transit Explorer database, which now includes all metro lines worldwide plus other fixed-route transit services in many countries. The database has been significantly expanded since I wrote about findings from its last update in January. This geospatial database allows me to investigate when and where transit is being built.

The first trend is unambiguous: Worldwide, metro service availability has expanded exponentially. In 1950, only 24 metropolitan areas in 13 countries globally could boast of a subway, elevated line, or monorail (automated light metros didn’t yet exist). Today, 232 metropolitan areas in 63 countries can make such a claim.

Metro construction has accelerated. The number of kilometers of metro lines in active service has expanded from just over 7,000 in 2000 to more than 23,000 today—a tripling of service even as the global population has grown by only about 30 percent during that time. There are almost 7,000 additional kilometers of metro lines currently under construction globally.

World Metro Line Kilometers

The increase in metro service availability in since 2000 has been driven by Chinese cities, which now host more than 40 percent of world metro kilometers. European cities have been steadily increasing their metro route length since the 1970s, however, and Indian cities have accelerated subway and elevated construction since 2010.

Cities in the United States had a plurality of the world’s metro kilometers until 1960. At that point, cities in the now-European Union accumulated more route kilometers (European cities now have about double the total metro kilometers as those in the United States). Chinese cities passed those in Europe in terms of length in about 2010—and Indian cities are expected to host more metro service than the United States by 2025, given current construction activity.

Metro Line Kilometers by Country

One major explanation for the United States’ declining rank in terms of metro service availability is the fact that the New York City region—which had the world’s longest metro system until the mid-1980s—now has fewer subway or elevated kilometers than it did in 1940, at its peak.

The New York region now has the 13th longest metro system in the world (including the Subway and PATH)—shorter than systems in nine Chinese cities (not all shown on the following graph), plus London, Moscow, Seoul. By 2025, it will be the 15th longest, passed by Delhi and another Chinese city. Remarkably, Shanghai’s metro system is now twice as long as New York’s Subway—despite the former only opening its doors in 1993. New York City has no serious plans to expand its system, even as virtually every other major metropolitan area is doing so.

Metro Line Kilometers by City

The result of the United States’ limited progress in providing metro services to its residents is that the number of metro kilometers per resident in the country is now lower than it was in the 1980s. It had the second-most-plentiful metro service per-capita in the world until that point (after the United Kingdom)—but on this metric it has now been passed by the European Union, as well as China, Japan, Russia, and South Korea, among other countries.

Per Capita Metro Lines by Country

Even when incorporating data on light rail and streetcar lines—which US cities have been more focused on building than metros—transit service availability has declined since the 1970s. Indeed, all of the rail transit construction that’s occurred in the United States since the 1980s has done little more than keep up with population growth.

Up until 2000—perhaps surprisingly given lower transit ridership—the United States had more kilometers of metro and light rail lines per capita than residents of neighboring countries or many large European countries for which the Transit Explorer database has complete information (the database does not yet include light rail or streetcar lines for all countries).

But the United States has lost its position on this metric to France and Spain in the years since. France went from having about half the per-capita urban rail miles as the United States in 2000 to significantly more today. And countries like Italy and the Netherlands have been rapidly expanding their services in recent years.

Per Capita Metro and Light Rail Lines by Country

What’s next for the United States? The federal government’s infrastructure law, passed in 2021, will send hundreds of billions of dollars to cities for new transit projects. So far, though, that hasn’t been enough to spur a massive investment in new transit lines compared to past efforts. Transit agencies in major cities are facing a “fiscal cliff” due to declining ridership that may make it more difficult for them to continue to provide adequate daily service. And construction costs are rising rapidly due to inflation.

Categories
General General Infrastructure Light Rail Metro Rail

Historical Trends Show a Decline in Investment in High–Quality Transit in the US—And an Uptick Elsewhere

Using the data embedded in the Transit Explorer database, I calculated key statistics on how transit investment has changed over time in the United States and a number of other countries. These data point to some intriguing trends, notably a decline in investment stateside combined with significant expansion in countries like Canada, Egypt, France, Israel, and Turkiye (I have not yet assembled data for countries in south and east Asia, where transit expansion is proceeding even more quickly).

(Relatedly, for the Urban Institute’s Urban Wire, I calculated key trends in housing adjacency to rail and bus rapid transit stations in the US, as well as Canada, England, and France.)

Over the past century, transit construction in the US waxed and waned. Overall, the number of kilometers of rail transit systems added reached its apex (at least since the 1920s) in the 1990s, when about 1,000 kilometers of new commuter rail lines were opened. During the first decade of the 2000s, the country added the most heavy rail (subway/metro) and light rail lines, generating more than 500 new kilometers over ten years, a record.

Since 2010, however, rail transit construction has lost steam in the US. The number of kilometers opened declined by about 30 percent between the 2000s and 2010s, and the first few years of the 2020s suggest further decline by 2030. At the current rate, less than 500 new kilometers of rail transit will open by then—the lowest figure since the 1970s.

Nevertheless, among the countries in the Transit Explorer database (meaning, excluding Australia, plus south and east Asian countries), the US now has the most kilometers of metro rail (heavy rail or light metro). As of 2023, it has about 1,350 kilometers in operation, of which about a third are in the New York region.

But the growth rate of active metro lines in the US has been slower than in other countries since 2000, increasing by only about 10 percent in route length (the US population grew by 18 percent over the same period). The length of metro systems more than doubled in Brazil and increased by 45 percent in Spain, by contrast.

And there are about 1,700 kilometers of metro in operation in the European Union’s seven most populous countries (Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Poland, Romania, and the Netherlands), whose collective population is almost identical to that of the United States. Their metro route length has increased by 30 percent overall since 2000—three times as fast as the US. (Those countries’ populations collectively grew by only about 4.5 percent between 2000 and 2021.) It is worth noting that Russia’s urban metro rail systems have also expanded tremendously since 2000, outpacing Spain as of 2022.

We can see similar trends when examining the number of light rail, tramway, or streetcar stations in operation across the countries in the database. Since 1980, US cities have invested heavily in light rail, adding about 1,370 stations nationwide. That’s a lot, but it is less than in those seven EU countries combined (2,100 stations), and even just in France (1,450 stations).

And some countries, like Italy, are planning very large investments in new tramways in the coming year.

Transit expansion plans, of course, vary by metropolitan area. Among regions in the US and Canada, New York has by far the largest number of line kilometers of light or heavy rail, followed by the Bay Area, Mexico City, Washington, DC, Los Angeles, and Toronto.

But New York actually has fewer active heavy rail lines in service than it did in 1950. And neither it nor Chicago has added much light rail or subway service since the turn of the millennium. Neither has any major expansion plans actually funded for completion over the next five years, either.

Los Angeles, Montreal, Seattle, and Toronto, on the other hand, stand out as having the largest transit expansion plans in terms of new route kilometers that are currently under construction or planned, meaning projects are funded and almost ready for construction.

And when controlling for urban area population, New York is arguably an under-performer when it comes to overall transit route length. The New York urban area currently has fewer light or heavy rail kilometers per capita than the Baltimore, Bay Area, Denver, Philadelphia, San Diego, St. Louis, and Washington, DC regions. It goes to show that having the maximum amount of transit route length isn’t necessarily directly correlated with having the most transit ridership; the New York area carries more people on transit than all those regions combined.

But New York, as noted, also stands out for having no light rail or subway projects that are either under construction or funded. This situation contrasts strongly with the Minneapolis and Seattle urban areas, whose rail transit expansion plans are the largest in the US on a per-capita basis.

New York’s limited transit expansion prospects are particularly remarkable when compared to the plans of many other world regions. Cairo, Istanbul, Paris, Riyadh, Tel Aviv, and Toronto each have many light rail or metro lines under construction today—and many more kilometers planned (Paris is likely to soon overtake London and New York in terms of total kilometers of such routes). London, on the other hand, has none.

Different regions are investing in different ways. Among routes that are currently under construction, Casablanca, Copenhagen, Los Angeles, Seattle, Tel Aviv, and Toronto have focused heavily on light rail projects. Cairo, Istanbul, Lagos, Montreal, Paris, and Riyadh are building at least 50 kilometers of metro rail each. And Bogota, Paris, and Rio de Janeiro are building many kilometers of bus rapid transit.

The result of all this expansion is that New York’s once-dominant position as having the world’s longest metro network—a position it claimed from London in the 1910s—has eroded. New York pulled down many of its elevated lines and didn’t do much to expand its Subway network. Meanwhile, London took on the mantle in the 1980s through its expansion with the Docklands Light Railway, and, through systematic, relentless expansion, Moscow took the crown from London in the 2010s. Systems in East Asia are even larger. At the same time, Paris, Cairo, and Istanbul have massive expansion plans with many new lines opening over the next five years.

These conditions overall tell a story of declining US commitment to transit expansion in the context of large growth in other countries around the world. There are some exceptions—Seattle, in particular, has a big investment in new lines planned. But while the world is building out ever more accessible transit systems, the US appears to be falling behind.

Categories
Aerial Bus Commuter Rail General General Infrastructure Light Rail Metro Rail Stations Streetcar

Openings and Construction Starts Planned for 2023

Last year, three lines Americans have been waiting on for decades—the Green Line extension in Boston, the Crenshaw Line in Los Angeles, and the Silver Line to Dulles Airport outside Washington—finally opened. Though they took years to be completed, they were greeted enthusiastically by riders and political officials content to bring better service to more people.

Similar reception greeted new rail and bus lines opening in Athens, Cairo, Guadalajara, Helsinki, Paris, and dozens of other cities around the world. And much more is planned for 2023: Finally, Long Island Rail Road service will reach the sub-sub-sub-basement of Grand Central Terminal. Toronto’s Eglinton light rail line will connect the city crosstown. And Honolulu, Gebze, Riyadh, Tel Aviv, and Thessaloniki will get their first metro services.

This year, I leveraged data assembled in the Transit Explorer database to identify which projects opened in 2022, which are planned for opening in 2023, and which will be under construction this year—for a later opening date.

On separate posts, I analyzed trends in transit investments around the world and examined accessibility to transit stations in the US versus Canada, England, and France.

London’s Crossrail project opened in 2022, providing new cross-city connections across the capital. Credit: Geoff Henson on Flickr (cc).

The Transit Explorer database now includes all fixed–guideway urban transit systems (meaning rail and bus rapid transit) across North America, South America, Africa, and nine Western European countries, plus metro systems throughout Europe and in parts of the Middle East. Transit Explorer now includes about 29,200 urban transit stations and about 6,700 urban transit lines (covering 78,000 kilometers). (It also includes some intercity rail systems.) These are the geographies for which I provide details about transit line openings below.

Istanbul’s metro network—spanning continents—is becoming one of the world’s largest.
Bogota is a bus rapid transit haven—but a new metro system is planned.

Data can be viewed freely on Transit Explorer or purchased for non-commercial use in Shapefile, GeoJSON, and CSV formats for those who would like to use the data for research or other uses, such as in Excel, R, ArcGIS, or QGIS.

Previous compilations of new and planned transit projects on The Transport Politic can be found here: 2009 | 2010 | 2011  | 2012  | 2013  | 2014  | 2015  | 2016  | 2017 | 2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021 | 2022


New transit investments completed in 2022

Overall, 517 kilometers of new fixed-guideway urban transit services opened in 2022 across the countries covered by the Transit Explorer database. Of these, the countries with the largest increases in kilometers were the United States (196 kilometers); Egypt (77 kilometers); Mexico (60 kilometers); France (39 kilometers); and the United Kingdom (34 kilometers).

Azerbaijan

  • Baku: 2 km Purple Line metro extension from Avtovagzal to Khojasan

Canada

  • Montreal: Creation of 11 km SRB Pie-IX bus rapid transit route through the east side of the city

Denmark

Egypt

  • Cairo:
    • Line 3 metro extension west to Kit Kat (4 km)
    • Creation of 72 km Cairo Light Rail system (really a metro system) heading east into the new capital area

Finland

  • Helsinki: 7 km extension of the M1 metro line

France

  • Paris:
  • Rennes: Creation of new 13 km Line B automated light metro
  • Toulouse: Creation of 3 km Teleo aerial tram line

Greece

Italy

  • Milan: Opening of the first phase of automated M4 light metro, 5.5 km from the airport into the city

Israel

  • Haifa: Creation of Rakavlit aerial tram line (4 km)

Luxembourg

  • Luxembourg: Extension of T1 tramway by 1.2 km to the south

Mauritius

  • Port Louis: 10 km extension of the Metro Express light rail system to the south

Mexico

  • Guadalajara: Creation of 41.5 km Mi Macro Periferico bus rapid transit line, a circumferential route around the city
  • Mexico: 18 km extension of Mexibus Linea 1 bus rapid transit line in the northern suburbs

Poland

  • Warsaw: Extension of M2 metro line west and east, totaling 6 km

Spain

Turkiye

  • Bursa: Creation of 8 km T2 tramway line
  • Istanbul:
    • 8 km extension of M4 to Asian-side airport
    • 1.5 km extension of M7
    • Creation of F4 funicular system, a 1 km line

United Kingdom

United States


Planned 2023 openings

Almost 1,100 kilometers of fixed-guideway urban transit is planned to open in 2023 in the parts of the world covered by Transit Explorer. Of these, about half will be in the form of metro rail services. The countries with the largest expansions planned for opening are the United States (242 kilometers); Saudi Arabia (169 kilometers); Turkiye (127 kilometers); Mexico (98 kilometers); and Canada (78 kilometers). That said, all investments aren’t equal: 57 percent of new US route kilometers will be bus rapid transit or arterial rapid transit. In many other countries, new kilometers are much more likely to be metro rail or light rail services: Saudi Arabia (100 percent); Turkiye (83 percent); and Canada (93 percent).

Brasil

  • Rio de Janeiro: TransBrasil, 32 km bus rapid transit route

Canada

Chile

  • Santiago:
    • Line 2, extension to El Pino, 5 km
    • Line 3, extension to Plaza de Quilicura, 3 km
    • Creation of Teleferico Bicentenario, 3 km aerial tram

Egypt

  • Cairo
    • Line 3, 6 km extension to Cairo University
    • Line 3, 7 km extension to Rod el-Farag

France

Greece

Israel

  • Tel Aviv: Creation of 24 km Red Line light rail corridor, which includes some subway segments through the city

Italy

  • Catania: 3 km extensions of the Metropolitana system
  • Genova: 0.9 km extension of the automated light metro Metropolitana to Canepari
  • Milan: Extension of M4 9 km into the city center
  • Naples: 3.5 km extension of Line 6 light metro line

Mexico

Netherlands

  • Rotterdam: Extension of Line B metro to Hoek van Holland, 2 km

Nigeria

Panama

  • Panama: Line 2, 2 km extension to the airport

Russia

  • Moscow
    • Extension of metro line 8A, 5 km
    • Extension of metro line 10, 6 km
    • Extensions of metro line 11, 19 km
    • Creation of metro line 16, 15 km line

Saudi Arabia

Senegal

  • Dakar: Extension of the Train express régional commuter rail to AIBD, 19 km

Spain

Turkiye

  • Ankara: 3.5 km extension of M4 metro to 15 Temmuz Kizilay Milli Irade
  • Gebze: Creation of 16 km M1 metro
  • Istanbul:
    • M3 extensions to Barkirkoy IDO (8.5 km) and Kayasehir Merkez (6 km)
    • M5 extension to Sancaktepe Sehir Hastanesi (3 km)
    • Creation of M8 metro, 14 km
    • M9 extension to Atakoy, 11 km
    • M11 extensions to Gayrettepe (3 km) and Halkali (33 km)
    • Tramway T5 extension to Eminonu, 1 km
    • Creation of T6 tramway, 8.5 km
  • Izmir:
    • M1 metro extension to Kaymakamlik hatti, 7 km
    • T1 tramway extension, 1.5 km
    • Creation of T3 tramway, 10 km

United Kingdom

United States


Under construction in 2023

Among the countries in the Transit Explorer database, there will be roughly 1,900 kilometers of new fixed–guideway urban transit projects under construction in 2023, but planned to be opened after 2023. About 43 percent of those kilometers will be in the form of metro services. 554 kilometers will be under construction in the United States, 305 kilometers in France, and 172 kilometers in Canada.

Algeria

Argentina

  • Buenos Aires: Belgrano Sur commuter rail line, 4 km extension

Austria

Azerbaijan

  • Baku:
    • Green Line metro extension to Mohammed Hadi, 10 km
    • Purple Line metro extension to B-4 station, 1 km

Belarus

  • Minsk: Zelenaluzhskaya Line metro extension to Slutsk Gastinets, 4 km, opening 2024

Belgium

  • Antwerpen: Antwerpse premetro Kerkstraat route, 2 km, opening 2026
  • Brussels: T10 tram, linking Rogier to Neder-Over-Heembeek, opening 2024
  • Charleroi: Metro Châtelet Branch (light rail), 4 km, opening 2026
  • Liège: New tramway, 12 km, opening 2024

Brasil

  • Curitiba: Linha Verde bus rapid transit, 5.5 km
  • Fortaleza: Linha Leste metro, 6 km, opening 2024
  • Rio de Janeiro: Line 4 extensions, 3 km
  • Salvador:
  • Sao Paulo:
    • Line 2 metro extension, 9 km, opening 2026
    • Line 6 metro new line creation, 16 km, opening 2026
    • Line 17 monorail project, 8.5 km, opening 2024
    • Line 9 Mendes-Varginha commuter rail line extension, 2.5 km

Bulgaria

  • Sofia: M3 metro extension to Vladimir Vazov, 4 km

Canada

Chile

  • Santiago:
    • Line 6 metro extension to Isidora Goyenechea, 1 km, opening 2027
    • Line 7 creation of new metro line, 29 km, opening 2027

Colombia

  • Bogota:
    • Line 1 metro new line, 24 km, opening 2028
    • RegioTram de Occidente new regional rail line, 40 km, opening 2024
    • Avenida 68 bus rapid transit route, 17 km, opening 2026
    • NQS Sur bus rapid transit extension, 4.5 km
  • Medellin: Calle 12 Sur bus rapid transit extension, 1.5 km

Czechia

  • Prague: Line D metro extension, 1.5 km, opening 2029

Denmark

Egypt

  • Cairo: Cairo Light Rail Transit (metro) extensions, 22 km

France

Germany

Greece

Israel

  • Jerusalem:
    • Red Line tramway extensions to Neve Yaakov and Hadassah, 7 km, opening 2025
    • Green Line new tramway line, 22 km, opening 2025
  • Tel Aviv:
    • Purple Line new light rail line, 30 km, opening 2028
    • Green Line new light rail line, 40 km, opening 2028

Italy

  • Bologna: Line 1 tramway new line, 23 km, opening 2026
  • Cagliari: Line 1 tramway extension to FS station, 3 km, opening 2024
  • Florence: T2 tramway extension, 3 km
  • Genova: Metropolitana automated light metro extension to Martinez, 1 km, opening 2024
  • Milan: M1 metro extension to Monza Bettola, 2 km, opening 2024
  • Naples:
    • Line 1 metro extensions, 10.5 km, opening 2024
    • Line 7 metro, 6 km
    • Line 10 automated light metro, 14 km
    • Linea 11 metro to Giugliano-Aversa, 15 km
  • Rome: C automated light metro extension to Fori Imperiali, 4 km, opening 2024
  • Turin
    • Line 1 automated light metro extension to Cascine Vica, 5 km, opening 2024
    • Line 3 commuter rail connection to Caselle Aeroporto, 2 km
    • Alba-Ceres commuter rail connection, 4 km

Ivory Coast

  • Abidjan: Metro, 36 km, opening 2025

Luxembourg

Mexico

Morocco

Netherlands

  • Amsterdam: Tramway extension, 1 km

Norway

Panama

Peru

  • Lima:
    • Line 2 new line, 27 km, opening 2024
    • Line 4 metro to Gambetta, 8 km

Portugal

Romania

  • Bucarest: M2 metro extension to Tudor Arghezi, 2 km

South Africa

Spain

Sweden

Turkiye

  • Ankara: Ankaray metro extension to Sogutozu, 1 km
  • Bursa: BursaRay light rail extension to Sehir Hastanesi, 5.5 km, opening 2024
  • Istanbul:
    • M1B metro extension to Halkali, 11 km, opening 2024
    • M4 metro extension to Icemeler, 9 km
    • M5 metro extension to Sultanbeyli, 9 km, opening 2024
    • M7 metro extension to Kabatas, 4 km, opening 2024
    • M7 metro extension to Hastane, 9 km, opening 2025
    • M7 metro extension to Esenyurt Meydan, 14 km, opening 2029
    • M10 metro extension to Pendik Center, 5 km
    • M12 metro new line, 15 km, opening 2024
  • Izmir: M2 metro new line, 15 km, opening 2026
  • Mersin: M1 metro new line, 15.5 km, opening 2026

Ukraine

  • Dnipro: Dnipro Metro extension, 6 km, opening 2024
  • Kyiv: M3 metro extension to Marshala Hrechka, 6.5 km

United Kingdom

United States

Venezuela

  • Caracas:
    • Line 5 metro, 9.5 km
    • MetroCable La Dolorita aerial tram, 4 km
    • Metro de Los Teques Line 2 extension, 10 km
  • Valencia: Line 2 light rail extension, 2.5 km
Categories
General

Openings and Construction Starts Planned for 2022

2021 was theoretically going to be a big year for transit projects across the United States. Boston’s Green Line Extension, Honolulu’s Rail Transit, Los Angeles’ Crenshaw Line, Miami’s Downtown Commuter Line, and Washington’s Silver Line Phase II were all supposed to open.

None of them did.

The Covid-19 pandemic, difficulties keeping workers on the job, and failure in acquiring affordable materials all got in the way. But in a year of difficulties getting people to ride transit, perhaps the delays weren’t as problematic as they could have been.

2022, we can hope, will be different. According to transit agencies, 22 new fixed-guideway transit projects are expected to open this year across the United States. And many more are planned elsewhere around the globe.

Montreal's REM
Montreal’s automated REM project under construction (source: REM)

In this post, as in every year for the past 13, I catalogue all of the fixed-guideway transit projects opening and under construction in the United States, plus in many other countries.

This post builds off the Transit Explorer 2 database, which is frequently updated and provides information about existing, under construction, proposed, and cancelled fixed-route transit.

UK transit, now featured on Transit Explorer 2
All of the projects mentioned in this post can be accessed on Transit Explorer 2.

The database includes transit systems across North America and Africa, plus eight countries in Western Europe. It also for the first time this year incorporates the United Kingdom. Transit Explorer 2 now includes more than 21,300 transit stations and about 5,500 transit lines.

Data can be viewed freely on Transit Explorer 2 or purchased for non-commercial use in Shapefile, GeoJSON, and CSV formats for those who would like to use the data for research or other uses, such as in Excel, R, ArcGIS, or QGIS.

Previous compilations of new and planned transit projects on The Transport Politic (including the many that have been delayed) can be found here: 2009 | 2010 | 2011  | 2012  | 2013  | 2014  | 2015  | 2016  | 2017 | 2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021


New transit investments completed in 2021

Though a smaller-than-expected cohort of new transit lines opened in 2021, cities across the United States, Canada, and several other countries brought rail and high-quality bus services into operation last year.

Long-planned light-rail expansions opened north of the San Diego and Seattle. Charlotte extended its streetcar line in two directions, creating a now-four-mile corridor through the city’s center. And Boston and Minneapolis took opposing approaches to improving their bus networks; the first installed center-running, dedicated bus lanes along a major urban street, while the second created a highway-running corridor designed primarily to serve the suburbs.

Boston's Columbus Avenue BRT
Boston’s Columbus Avenue Busway (source: MBTA)

Both Brussels and Paris opened new or expanded tramways labeled number 9–and London constructed an extension of its Underground network for the first time in decades. Each of these projects is catalogued below. Click on the icon to locate the project on Transit Explorer 2.

Openings in the US, Canada, and Mexico in 2021

  • Boston’s Columbus Avenue Busway, a 0.7 mile, center-running bus route on one of the city’s most-used corridors.
  • Charlotte’s CityLYNX Gold Line Phase II, extending the city’s fledging downtown streetcar in both directions into the surrounding neighborhoods—2.5 miles for $150 million.
  • Las Vegas’ Convention Center Loop, a short tunnel designed for Tesla cars that Elon Musk has promoted as the future of public transit—with little evidence to support that contention.
  • Mexico City’s Metrobus Linea 5 BRT, creating a long north-south corridor on the east side of the city.
  • Minneapolis’ Orange Line, taking advantage of the renovation of the I-35W highway to create new dedicated bus runningways and special stations from downtown Minneapolis to the south suburbs—17 miles for $151 million.
  • Monterrey’s Linea 3, expected to serve 280,000 riders a day—4.7 miles for about $440 million.
  • Reno’s Virginia Street BRT—1.8 miles for $80 million.
  • San Diego’s Mid Coast Corridor Blue Line, linking the central city with University of California at San Diego along a route mostly parallel to commuter rail services—10.9 miles for $2.1 billion.
  • Seattle’s Northgate Link Line 1 Extension, extending the region’s north-south light rail corridor north from the University of Washington, partly in a subway—4.3 miles for $2.1 billion.
  • Toronto’s Richmond Hill Metrolinx Extension to Bloomington—an $80 million project that will eventually form part of the GO RER regional rail network.
San Diego's Blue Line Extension
San Diego’s Blue Line Extension (source: MTS)

Openings in Africa and Western Europe in 2021

  • Brussels’ Tramway 9 Extension, adding a mile of service north of the city.
  • Dakar’s regional commuter train, running east from the Atlantic coast
  • London’s Northern Line extension to Battersea, the city’s first Underground extension in the 21st century, connecting to a new development zone.
  • Paris’ Tramway 9, a new 6.4-mile line linking the city limits with the suburbs of Ivry, Vitry, and Orly, and the most recent addition to a regional tramway network that now serves more than one million daily riders.
Paris' Tramway 9
Paris’ Tramway 9 (source: Yonah Freemark)

Planned 2022 openings

2022 will be a blockbuster year for transit expansion if the projects currently announced come to fruition.

The next 11 months are expected to bring the first phase of Honolulu’s rail line, the second phase of Washington’s Silver Line, an extension of Boston’s Green Line, and new light-rail subways through the downtowns of both Los Angeles and San Francisco. Three US cities–Milwaukee, Seattle, and Tempe–will activate new streetcar corridors. And bus rapid transit lines of varying quality will come online, some little different than a normal bus (like Birmingham’s Xpress BRT), some involving considerable dedicated right-of-way (like San Francisco’s Van Ness BRT).

The biggest US project opening this year, or at least the most expensive, is the East Side Access project, a new tunnel for Long Island Rail Road trains to journey from Queens into Grand Central Terminal. The more than $11 billion project, expected to open in December, will save commuters to East Midtown from Nassau and Suffolk Counties huge amounts of time–if they ever make their way back to the office.

Outside the US, Montreal is planning to open the first phase of its automated rail system, and Edmonton and Toronto will add new light-rail corridors. In Africa, new metro extensions are planned for Alger, Cairo, and Lagos. And new subway extensions are expected in London (the long-anticipated Elizabeth Line), Milano (the first phase of the automated M4 metro route), Paris (expansions of the M4 and M12 lines) and Rennes (a second automated line).

Planned US heavy rail openings in 2022

  • Honolulu’s Rail Transit Phase I, connecting Kapolei to Aloha Stadium, not yet making it to the airport or downtown. The remainder of the line may take until 2031 to open, despite the project being originally scheduled for completion in 2020—at half the cost.
  • Washington’s Silver Line Phase II, providing new service west from the current terminus at Reston, and providing a new elevated station at Dulles Airport—11.4 miles for $2.8 billon. This project has been delayed repeatedly; it was originally supposed to open in 2016.
Honolulu's rail transit
Honouliuli station along Honolulu’s new rail transit line (source: HART)

Planned US light rail openings in 2022

  • Boston’s Green Line Extension, providing service west of Lechmere into Somerville and Medford on two branches, the first Boston-region rapid transit expansion in decades—4.7 miles for $2.3 billion.
  • Los Angeles’ Crenshaw Line, running from the Expo Line to the Green Line, designed to allow a future connection to the LAX airport people mover (which is also under construction)—8.5 miles for $2.1 billion. This project was delayed from a 2020 opening.
  • Los Angeles’ Regional Connector LRT, a new downtown subway for light rail lines, allowing through running between Santa Monica and East L.A., and between Long Beach and the San Gabriel Valley—1.9 miles for $1.8 billion.
  • San Francisco’s Central Subway LRT, creating a second, perpendicular subway downtown for light rail routes—1.7 miles for $1.6 billion.
San Francisco's Central Subway
Chinatown/Rose Pak station on San Francisco’s Central Subway (source: SFMTA)

Planned US streetcar openings in 2022

  • Milwaukee’s Lakefront streetcar extension, adding a small portion to the city’s downtown service—0.4 miles for $29 million.
  • Seattle’s Line T Hilltop extension, extending Tacoma’s streetcar service in anticipation of future light rail connections—2.4 miles for $166 million.
  • Tempe’s Streetcar, an C-shaped in the eastern suburbs of Phoenix, connected to that region’s light rail system—3 miles for $200 million.
Tempe Streetcar
Tempe Streetcar (source: Valley Metro)

Planned US bus rapid transit openings in 2022

  • Birmingham’s Xpress BRT, an arterial rapid transit line running 10 miles east-west through Alabama’s largest city.
  • Chicago’s Pace Pulse Dempster, a new arterial rapid transit route from Evanston to the city’s northwestern suburbs—15 miles for $10 million.
  • El Paso’s Brio Montana BRT—19 miles for $49 million.
  • Milwaukee’s East-West BRT—9 miles for $54 million.
  • Minneapolis’ D Line, an arterial rapid transit line from North Minneapolis to Bloomington via downtown–$75 million.
  • Portland’s Division Transit BRT, creating dedicated lanes and flow improvements on the city’s most-used bus route—15 miles for $175 million.
  • San Francisco’s Van Ness Avenue BRT, creating a new north-south corridor on one of the city’s most-used bus routes—2 miles for $170 million.
  • Seattle’s RapidRide H BRT—7.3 miles, expected to carry 7,000 daily riders into West Seattle.
  • St. Petersburg’s SunRunner BRT, a dedicated-lane bus service along Central Avenue to the beach—11 miles for $44 million.
San Francisco's Van Ness BRT
San Francisco’s Van Ness Avenue BRT (source: SFMTA)

Planned US commuter rail openings in 2022

  • Marin County’s SMART Train Extension to Windsor, adding a few miles to the line—3 miles for $65 million.
  • Miami’s Downtown Link, taking advantage of the construction of Brightline’s intercity rail terminus to bring commuter trains to the city center for the first time—9 miles for $69 million. This project has continued to be delayed from a 2020 opening.
  • New York’s East Side Access, the commuter rail link for Long Island Rail Road Access to Grand Central Terminal—roughly 3 miles for $11.1 billion. This project has been delayed repeatedly; it was originally supposed to open in 2015.
  • San Bernardino’s Arrow Redlands commuter rail extension—9 miles for $360 million.
New York's East Side Access
New York’s East Side Access project (source: MTA)

Planned 2022 openings in Canada

  • Edmonton’s Valley Line Stage I Southeast—8.1 miles for about $1.8 billion.
  • Montreal’s SRB Pie-IX BRT, dedicated lanes for buses along a major north-south corridor on the city’s east side—6.8 miles for about $400 million.
  • Montreal’s REM Phase I, new automated rail service to the south shore of the city. More extensions coming in the next few years.
  • Toronto’s Eglinton Crosstown LRT, an east-west light rail project with a subway section through the city’s midtown—11.8 miles for around $6.4 billion.
Toronto's Eglinton Crosstown
Overhead wire installation on Toronto’s Eglinton Crosstown Line 5 (source: Metrolinx)

Planned 2022 openings in Africa

  • Alger’s Line 1 extension to Baraki, a short expansion of the recently opened metro system in this coastal city.
  • Cairo’s 41-mile interurban line linking Cairo with the new capital city at 10th of Ramadan.
  • Cairo’s Metro Line 3 extension, crossing the Nile to the west of the center city.
  • Johannesburg’s Rea Vaya Phase IC bus rapid transit line, building up a network of effective local public transportation routes.
  • Lagos’ Blue Line, a 16.8 mile rapid transit system that will ensure speedy travel in this sprawling megalopolis.
Lagos' Blue Line
Lagos’ Blue Line (source: Solasly)

Planned 2022 openings in France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom

  • Birmingham’s West Midlands Metro light rail extensions to Wolverhampton and the west side of the city.
  • Blackpool’s Tramway extension, adding a short link to the rail station.
  • Catania’s Metropolitana, a 1.1-mile extension of the city’s metro system through the historic center.
  • London’s Elizabeth Line central section, a new subway tunnel creating an east-west regional link through the UK capital, extending services that currently terminate at Liverpool Street and Paddington.
  • London’s Overground Extension to Barking Riverside, connecting the regional rail system to a far eastern neighborhood.
  • London’s Luton DART, an automated people mover connecting the regional rail system with the airport.
  • Luxembourg’s Tramway T1 extension, extending the service south of the main rail station.
  • Malaga’s Metro lines 1 and 2 extensions, bringing the service into the center of the city.
  • Milano’s M4 metro first phase, a new automated, east-west, cross-city link.
  • Paris’ M4 metro extension to Bagneux (already opened in January 2022), a 1.7-mile extension of the city’s second-most frequently line south to the suburb of Bagneux and a future link to M15.
  • Paris’ M12 metro extension north to Aubervilliers, where the metro will also link to the future M15.
  • Paris’ Tramway 13 Express, a north-south tram-train line running 11.7 miles in the city’s western suburbs.
  • Rennes’ Metro B, an 8.8-mile second heavy rail route for this medium-sized city in western France. The line will be fully automated.
  • Rotterdam’s Line B extension, connecting the line to the North Sea.
  • Toulouse’s Teleo Aerial Tramway, crossing the city’s south side and linking with medical complexes.
  • Valencia’s Line 10 tramway line, a new route from the center to the southeast.
London Paddington on Crossrail
Paddington station on London’s Elizabeth Line (source: Crossrail Ltd)

Under construction, with planned opening in 2023

Undoubtedly some of the projects planned for opening this year will be delayed for 2023. But there are dozens of additional projects already under construction and planned for 2023 openings. Some of the most transformative will be a new light rail line connecting Seattle with its suburb Bellevue; a second metro rail line in Lagos; a new regional rail tunnel in Paris; and two light rail expansions in Porto.

Planned US openings in 2023

Seattle's East Link
The East Link tunnel under downtown Bellevue, east of Seattle (source: Sound Transit).
  • Orange County’s OC Streetcar, connecting to Metrolink commuter rail service—4.1 miles for $408 million.
  • Salt Lake City’s Ogden/Weber State University BRT, adding dedicated lanes and a high-quality bus route to light rail service—5.3 miles for $100 million.
  • San Francisco’s Geary Boulevard BRT, offering new connections from downtown to the west side of the city after decades of planning—6.6 miles for $300 million (this is phase 1, just the eastern section of the project).
  • Seattle’s East Link Blue Line, new light rail service for Bellevue and other eastern suburbs—14 miles for $2.8 billion.
  • Spokane’s City Line BRT, creating improved bus service in the largest city in eastern Washington—6 miles for $72 million.
  • Vancouver, Washington’s the Vine Mill Plain BRT—$50 million for better service north of Portland.
  • Washington, DC’s Pentagon City Transitway Extension, a short BRT connector through Amazon’s second headquarters.
Spokane's City Line under construction
Spokane’s City Line under construction (source: Spokane Transit)

Planned 2023 openings elsewhere in North America

  • Gatineau’s Rapibus Lorraine Extension.
  • London, Ontario’s Downtown Loop BRT, creating new dedicated lanes for buses through downtown.
  • Mexico City’s Linea 12 extension, the latest expansion to North America’s second-most-used metro system—2.9 miles for about $150 million.
  • Mexico City’s AIFA Line Extension, connecting the commuter rail system to the airport on the city’s north side.
  • Mexico City’s Tren Interurbano de Pasajeros Toluca, a modern commuter rail service for the city’s southwest—35.9 miles for about $2 billion.
  • Montreal’s REM central segment, linking the south shore branch with future northern branches through the reuse of a tunnel under Mount Royal.
Ottawa Trillium Line South Extension
Rendering of Ottawa’s Trillium Line south extension airport station (source: City of Ottawa).
  • Ottawa’s Trillium Line South, adding new service to a light rail line integrated into a broader regional system—9.9 miles for about $1.7 billion.
  • Panama City’s Linea 2 extension to the airport, a 1.2-mile elevated addition to the city’s fledging metro system.
  • Toronto’s Line 6 Finch West, a new east-west light rail service northwest of downtown—6.8 miles for about $1.2 billion.

Planned 2023 openings in Africa

  • Cairo’s Line 3 extension.
  • Lagos’ Red Line, a 23-mile heavy-rail line that will build on the new Blue Line Corridor.

Planned 2023 openings in France, Italy, Portugal, and the United Kingdom

Paris M11 Extension
Paris’ Metro Line 11 under construction (source: Ile-de-France Mobilites)

Other projects under construction, with future openings

There are at least 70 other major projects in the countries covered by Transit Explorer 2 that are already under construction (or expected to begin construction in 2022), and that will open between 2024 and 2031.

This list will expand, particularly in the US, as more projects are funded through the federal government’s additional support for infrastructure projects.

Indianapolis Purple Line
Rendering of Indianapolis’ Purple Line (source: IndyGo).

Projects expected to open in 2024

  • Antwerpen’s Premetro, adding a short new underground link through the city center.
  • Atlanta’s Summerhill BRT, a 2.4 mile line extending south from downtown.
  • Birmingham’s Brierley Hill Extension, adding 6.8 miles to the West Midlands Metro.
  • Bordeaux’s St-Aubin-Medoc BRT—13.1 miles for about $200 million.
  • Casablanca’s T3 and T4 tramway lines, adding 8.7 miles to the system.
  • Dallas’ Silver Line, new rail service along the Cotton Belt corridor—26 miles for $1.1 billion.
  • Indianapolis’ Purple Line BRT, a full-featured route that doubles the extent of the city’s electric bus rapid transit system—15.2 miles for $155 million.
  • Guadalajara’s Linea 4, 13 miles of new light rail service.
  • Jersey City’s Hudson-Bergen Light Rail Bayfront extension.
  • Kansas City’s Riverfront streetcar extension, a 0.55-mile addition to the successful streetcar line, for about $22.2 million.
  • Lisboa’s metro green line extension, allowing the creation of a circular metro corridor through the city.
  • Los Angeles’ D Line (Purple) extension Phase I, more subway for the city’s west side—3.9 miles for $2.8 billion.
  • Madrid’s L5, 0.9-mile extension to Barajas Airport.
  • Milano’s M1 extension, providing two new stations north of the city.
  • Minneapolis’ Southwest Corridor Green Line, a light rail line from downtown Minneapolis to Eden Prairie—14.5 miles, $1.9 billion.
Atlanta's Summerhill Line BRT
Rendering of proposed station along Atlanta’s Summerhill BRT Line (source: MARTA).
  • Montreal’s REM extensions to the west, north, and airport.
  • Napoli’s Linea 1 extension, completing the circular route through the city.
  • Ottawa’s Confederation Line east, the latest extension of that city’s light rail system—7.5 miles for about $1.3 billion.
  • Paris’ M14 south—8.7 miles linking central Paris with Orly Airport.
  • Paris’ M14 north to St. Denis-Pleyel—1.1 miles of automated rail connecting St. Denis with a major new intermodal center in time for the Olympics.
  • Paris’ RER E western extension, providing service west of La Defense and doubling the length of the line.
  • Paris’ T Zen 3 BRT, extending 5.8 miles northeast from the city center.
  • Paris’ T Zen 4 BRT, running through the southeastern suburbs.
Paris Line 14
New tunnel along Paris’ Line 14 South (source: RATP).
Hurontario LRT
Rendering of Toronto’s Hurontario LRT (source: Metrolinx).

Projects expected to open in 2025

Birmingham Eastside light rail
Rendering of Curzon Street station on Birmingham, UK’s Eastside metro extension (source: Midland Metro Alliance).
Montpellier Tramway 5
Rendering of Montpellier’s Tramway 5 (source: Montpellier Mediterranee Metropole).

Projects expected to open in 2026

Purple Line shaft at Bethesda station
Tunnel shaft for Purple Line at Bethesda station (source: Maryland Department of Transportation).

Projects expected to open in 2027

Calgary Green Line
Rendering of Calgary’s Green Line (source: City of Calgary).

Projects expected to open in 2028

Projects expected to open in 2030

Projects expected to open in 2031


Have fun exploring these projects throughout Transit Explorer 2!

Check out Bolts for local political news in the US.

Note: Updated with corrections as of January 24, 2022 1 pm ET.